We propose various simulation strategies to generate single-frame fire effects for images, as opposed to multi-frame fire effects for animations. To accelerate 3D simulation and to provide a user with early hints on the final effect, we propose a 2D-guided 3D simulation approach, which runs a faster 2D simulation first, and then guides 3D simulation using the 2D simulation result. To achieve this, we explore various boundary conditions and develop a constrained projection method. Since only the final frame will be used while intermediate frames are abandoned, earlier intermediate frames can take larger time steps and have large noise applied, quickly generating turbulent flow structures. As the final frame approaches, we increase the flow quality by reducing the time step and not adding any noise. This adaptive time stepping allows us to use more computational resource near or at the final frame. We also develop divergence and buoyancy modification methods to guide flames along arbitrary, even physically implausible, directions. Our simulation methods can effectively and efficiently generate a variety of fire effects useful for image decoration.
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