• 1
    Gordon NF, Duncan JJ. Effect of beta-blockers on exercise physiology: implications for exercise training. Med Sci Sports Exerc.1991;23:668676.
  • 2
    Packer M, Coats AJ, Fowler MB, et al.Effect of carvedilol on survival in severe chronic heart failure. N Engl J Med.2001;344:16511658.
  • 3
    Piepoli MF, Davos C, Francis DP, et al.Exercise training meta-analysis of trials in patients with chronic heart failure (ExTraMATCH). BMJ.2004;328:189.
  • 4
    Smart N, Marwick TH. Exercise training for patients with heart failure: a systematic review of factors that improve mortality and morbidity. Am J Med.2004;116:693706.
  • 5
    Haykowsky MJ, Liang Y, Pechter D, et al.A meta-analysis of the effect of exercise training on left ventricular remodeling in heart failure patients: the benefit depends on the type of training performed. J Am Coll Cardiol.2007;49:23292336.
  • 6
    Nishi I, Noguchi T, Iwanaga Y, et al.Effects of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure and advanced left ventricular systolic dysfunction receiving beta-blockers. Circ J.2011;75:16491655.
  • 7
    Zuurmond WW, Gootjes JR, Tol-Verhagen CV, et al.A simple standardized method for VAS measurements in terminally ill patients. J Palliat Med.2005;8:490491.
  • 8
    Wilmore JH, Ewy GA, Freund BJ, et al.Cardiorespiratory alterations consequent to endurance exercise training during chronic beta-adrenergic blockade with atenolol and propranolol. Am J Cardiol.1985;55:142D148D.
  • 9
    Demopoulos L, Yeh M, Gentilucci M, et al.Nonselective beta-adrenergic blockade with carvedilol does not hinder the benefits of exercise training in patients with congestive heart failure. Circulation. 1997;95:17641767.
  • 10
    Forissier JF, Vernochet P, Bertrand P, et al.Influence of carvedilol on the benefits of physical training in patients with moderate chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail.2001;3:335342.
  • 11
    Lama PJ. Systemic adverse effects of beta-adrenergic blockers: an evidence-based assessment. Am J Ophthalmol.2002;134:749760.
  • 12
    Baxter AJ, Spensley A, Hildreth A, et al.Beta blockers in older persons with heart failure: tolerability and impact on quality of life. Heart.2002;88:611614.
  • 13
    Fraga R, Franco FG, Roveda F, et al.Exercise training reduces sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure patients treated with carvedilol. Eur J Heart Fail.2007;9:630636.
  • 14
    Pozehl B, Duncan K, Krueger S, et al.Adjunctive effects of exercise training in heart failure patients receiving maximum pharmacologic therapy. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs.2003;18:177183.
  • 15
    Pietila M, Malminiemi K, Huupponen R, et al.Celiprolol augments the effect of physical exercise on insulin sensitivity and serum lipid levels in chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2000;2:8190.
  • 16
    Jadad AR, Moore RA, Carroll D, et al.Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?Control Clin Trials.1996;17:112.
  • 17
    Moseley AM, Herbert RD, Sherrington C, et al.Evidence for physiotherapy practice: a survey of the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro). Aust J Physiother.2002;48:4349.
  • 18
    Egger M, Davey Smith G, Schneider M, et al.Bias in meta-analysis detected by a simple, graphical test. BMJ1997;315:629634.
  • 19
    Curnier D, Galinier M, Pathak A, et al.Rehabilitation of patients with congestive heart failure with or without beta-blockade therapy. J Card Fail.2001;7:241248.
  • 20
    Levinger I, Bronks R, Cody DV, et al.Resistance training for chronic heart failure patients on beta blocker medications. Int J Cardiol.2005;102:493499.
  • 21
    O’Connor CM, Whellan DJ, Lee KL, et al.Efficacy and safety of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: HF-ACTION randomized controlled trial. JAMA.2009;301:14391450.
  • 22
    Sarullo FM, Fazio G, Brusca I, et al.Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in patients with chronic heart failure: prognostic comparison from peak VO2 and VE/VCO2 slope. Open Cardiovasc Med J.2010;4:127134.
  • 23
    Ades PA. Cardiac effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockade with intrinsic sympathomimetic activity during submaximal exercise. Br J Clin Pharmacol.1987;24(suppl 1):29S33S.
  • 24
    Cruickshank JM. Are we misunderstanding beta-blockers. Int J Cardiol.2007;120:1027.
  • 25
    Verbeek DE, van Riezen J, de Boer RA, et al.A review on the putative association between beta-blockers and depression. Heart Fail Clin.2011;7:8999.
  • 26
    Hunt SA, Baker DW, Chin MH, et al.ACC/AHA guidelines for the evaluation and management of chronic heart failure in the adult: executive summary. A report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to revise the 1995 Guidelines for the Evaluation and Management of Heart Failure). J Am Coll Cardiol.2001;38:21012113.
  • 27
    Smart N. Exercise training for heart failure patients with and without systolic dysfunction: an evidence-based analysis of how patients benefit. Cardiol Res Pract.2010 Sep 30;2011:pii: 837238.