• 1
    American Heart Association. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics: 2005 Update. Dallas, TX: American Heart Association; 2005.
  • 2
    Bonow RO, Bennett S, Casey DE, et al. ACC/AHA clinical performance measures adults with chronic heart failure—a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Performance Measures. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005;46:11441178.
  • 3
    Massie BM, Shah NB. Evolving trends in the epidemiologic factors of heart failure: rationale for preventive strategies and comprehensive disease management. Am Heart J. 1997;133:703712.
  • 4
    Wooley JA. Characteristics of thiamin and its relevance to the management of heart failure. Nutr Clin Pract. 2008;23:487.
  • 5
    Leslie D, Gheorghiade M. Is there a role for thiamine supplementation in the management of heart failure? Am Heart J. 1996;131:12481250.
  • 6
    Sica DA. Loop diuretic therapy, thiamine balance, and heart failure. Congest Heart Fail. 2007;13:244247.
  • 7
    Allard ML, Jeejeebhoy KN, Sole MJ. The management of conditioned nutritional requirements in heart failure. Heart Fail Rev. 2006;11:7582.
  • 8
    Thiamine. Monograph. Altern Med Rev. 2003;8:5962.
  • 9
    Constant J. Pearls and pitfalls in the use and abuse of diuretics for chronic congestive heart failure. Cardiology. 1999;92:156161.
  • 10
    Lee JH, Jarreau T, Prasad A, et al. Nutritional assessment in heart failure patients. Congest Heart Fail. 2011;17:199203.
  • 11
    Sriram K, Manzanares W, Joseph K. Thiamine in nutrition therapy. Nutr Clin Pract. 2012;27:4150.
  • 12
    Wilcox CS. Do diuretics cause thiamine deficiency? J Lab Clin Med. 1999;134:192193.
  • 13
    Bakker SJL, Leunissen KML. Hypothesis on cellular ATP depletion and adenosine release as causes of heart failure and vasodilatation in cardiovascular beriberi. Med Hypotheses. 1995;45:265267.
  • 14
    Saif MW. Is there a role for thiamine in the management of congestive heart failure? Southern Med J. 2003;96:114115.
  • 15
    Mendoza CE, Rodriguez F, Rosenberg DG. Reversal of refractory congestive heart failure after thiamine supplementation: report of a case and review of literature. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther. 2003;8:313316.
  • 16
    Shimon I, Almog S, Vered Z, et al. Improved left ventricular function after thiamine supplementation in patients with congestive heart failure receiving, long-term furosemide therapy. Am J Med. 1995;98:485490.
  • 17
    Brady JA, Rock CL, Horneffer MR. Thiamin status, diuretic medications, and the management of congestive heart failure. J Am Diet Assoc. 1995;95:541544.
  • 18
    Schoenenberger AW, Schoenenberger-Berzins R, der Maur CA, et al. Thiamine supplementation in symptomatic chronic heart failure: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study. Clin Res Cardiol. 2012;101:159164.
  • 19
    Smithline HA. Thiamine for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:124131.
  • 20
    Witte KKA, Nikitin NP, Parker AC, et al. The effect of micronutrient supplementation on quality-of-life and left ventricular function in elderly patients with chronic heart failure. Eur Heart J. 2005;26:22382244.
  • 21
    Freye E, Hartung E. The potential use of thiamine in patients with cardiac insufficiency. Acta Vitaminol Enzymol. 1982;4:285290.
  • 22
    Levy WC, Soine LA, Huth MM, Fishbein DP. Thiamine deficiency in congestive heart failure. Am J Med. 1992;93:705706.
  • 23
    Seligmann H, Halkin H, Rauchfleisch S, et al. Thiamine deficiency in patients with congestive heart failure receiving long-term furosemide therapy: a pilot study. Am J Med. 1991;91:151155.
  • 24
    Yui Y, Itokawa Y, Kawai C. Furosemide-induced thiamine deficiency. Cardiovasc Res. 1980;14:537540.
  • 25
    Hanninen SA, Darling PB, Sole MJ, et al. The prevalence of thiamin deficiency in hospitalized patients with congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;47:354361.
  • 26
    Zenuk C, Healey J, Donnelly J, et al. Thiamine deficiency in congestive heart failure patients receiving long term furosemide therapy. Can J Clin Pharmacol. 2003;10:184188.
  • 27
    DiNicolantonio JJ. Should torsemide be the loop diuretic of choice in systolic heart failure? Future Cardiol. 2012;8:707728.
  • 28
    Ali BH, Al-Qarawi AA. Thiamin status in furosemide-treated rats. Pharmacol Res. 2000;42:2124.
  • 29
    Lubetsky A, Winaver J, Seligman H, et al. Urinary thiamine excretion in the rat: effects of furosemide, other diuretics, and volume load. J Lab Clin Med. 1999;134:232237.
  • 30
    Rieck J, Halkin H, Almog S, et al. Urinary loss of thiamine is increased by low doses of furosemide in healthy volunteers. J Lab Clin Med. 1999;134:238243.
  • 31
    DiNicolantonio JJ, Lavie CJ, Niazi AK, et al. Effects of thiamine on cardiac function in patients with congestive heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis. 2013; (Submitted).
  • 32
    Krim SR, Campbell P, Lavie CJ, Ventura H. Micronutrients in chronic heart failure. Curr Heart Fail Rep. 2013 10:46-53.