Phyletic groups on networks



Three additional phyletic group types, “periphyletic,” “epiphyletic”, and “anaphyletic” (in addition to Hennigian mono-, para-, and polyphyletic) are defined in terms of trees and phylogenetic networks (trees with directed reticulate edges) via a generalization of the algorithmic definitions of Farris. These designations concern groups defined as monophyletic on trees, but with additional gains or losses of members from network edges. These distinctions should be useful in discussion of systems with non-vertical inheritance such as recombination between viruses, horizontal exchange between bacteria, hybridization in plants and animals, as well as human linguistic evolution. Examples are illustrated with Indo-European language groups.