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Expanded vs. dense polytetrafluoroethylene membranes in vertical ridge augmentation around dental implants: a prospective randomized controlled clinical trial




This prospective randomized controlled trial was designed to test the performance of titanium-reinforced dense polytetrafluoroethylene (d-PTFE) membrane vs. titanium-reinforced expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE) membrane in achieving vertical bone regeneration, both associated with a composite grafting material.

Material and methods

The study enrolled 23 patients requiring bone augmentation with guided bone regeneration (GBR) procedures for placing implants in atrophic posterior mandibles (available bone height <7 mm). Implants were inserted and left to protrude from the bone level to achieve the programmed amount of vertical regeneration. Defects were filled with a composite bone graft (50% autologous bone and 50% mineralized bone allograft) and randomly covered with either an e-PTFE membrane (control) or a d-PTFE membrane (test). Membrane removal was performed after 6 months, and changes in bone height were recorded.


Seventy-eight implants were inserted in 26 mandibular sites contextually to vertical ridge augmentation procedures. The healing period was uneventful in all sites, and the vertical defects were satisfactorily filled with a newly formed hard tissue. Mean defect fill after 6 months was 5.49 mm (SD ± 1.58) at test sites and 4.91 mm (SD ± 1.78) at control sites. The normalized data (percentage changes against baseline) did not show any statistically significant difference between test and control groups (= NS).


Based on the data from this study, both d-PTFE and e-PTFE membranes showed identical clinical results in the treatment of vertical bone defects around implants, using the GBR technique. The membrane removal procedure was easier to perform in the d-PTFE group than in the e-PTFE group.

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