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Oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation treatment enhances the human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells responses to titanium surface for dental implant application

Authors

  • Chih-Hsiung Yang,

    1. Institute of Oral Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
    2. Department of Dental Technology, Shu-Zen Junior College of Medicine and Management, Kaohsiung, Taiwan
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  • Yu-Chen Li,

    1. Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan, Taiwan
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  • Wen-Fa Tsai,

    1. Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan, Taiwan
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  • Chi-Fong Ai,

    1. Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan, Taiwan
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  • Her-Hsiung Huang

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Dentistry, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan
    2. Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
    3. Department of Biomedical Informatics, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan
    4. Department of Stomatology, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan
    • Corresponding author:

      Her-Hsiung Huang

      Department of Dentistry

      National Yang-Ming University

      No. 155, Sec. 2, Li-Nong Street

      Bei-Tou District, Taipei 112, Taiwan

      Tel.: +886 2 2826 7068

      Fax: +886 2 2826 4053

      e-mail: hhhuang@ym.edu.tw

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Abstract

Objectives

The present investigation utilized a novel oxygen plasma immersion ion implantation (O-PIII) treatment to create a dense and thin oxide layer on a titanium (Ti) surface for dental implant application.

Materials and methods

This study evaluated the behavior of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on O-PIII-treated Ti. The O-PIII treatments were performed using different oxygen ion doses (TL: 1 × 1016; TM: 4 × 1016; TH: 1 × 1017 ions/cm2).

Results

Analysis using an X-ray photoelectron spectrometer (XPS) and high resolution X-ray diffractometer (HR-XRD) indicated that the O-PIII-treated specimen TM had the highest proportion of rutile phase TiO2 component. The O-PIII-treated specimen TM had the greatest protein adsorption capability of the test Ti surfaces using XPS analysis and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) protein assay. Immunofluorescent staining revealed that hMSCs had the best cell adhesion on the O-PIII-treated specimen TM, whereas green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled hMSCs experienced the fastest cell migration based on a wound healing assay. Other assays, including MTT assay, Alizarin red S staining and Western blot analysis, demonstrated that the adhered hMSCs exhibited the greatest cell proliferation, mineralization, and differentiation capabilities on the TM specimen.

Conclusions

Oxidated Ti (primarily rutile TiO2) was produced using a facile and rapid O-PIII treatment procedure, which enhances the biocompatibility of the Ti surface with potential implications for further dental implant application.

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