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Resonance frequency analysis as a predictor of early implant failure in the partially edentulous posterior maxilla following immediate nonfunctional loading or delayed loading with single unit restorations




To assess the ability of baseline resonance frequency analysis (RFA) measurements to predict early implant failure in the posterior maxilla and to evaluate potential correlations between this measurement with Hounsfield units, bone quality variables, and implant dimension.

Materials and methods

This prospective randomized study involved 46 SLActive Straumann implants placed in the posterior maxillae of 21 subjects. Each patient received at least one control (delayed loading) and one experimental (immediate nonfunctional loading) implant. Each site was evaluated with presurgical computer-assisted tomography (CT) scans, histomorphometric analysis of bone cores, and subjective determination of bone quality. Baseline implant stability quotients (ISQ) were determined by RFA measurements made at the time of fixture placement. Pearson's correlation analysis and Spearman's test were used to identify statistically significant correlations within the resultant data. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine whether baseline ISQ values can accurately predict early implant failure.


The mean baseline ISQ values for the two groups were 66.8 (experimental) and 66.2 (control). The 12-month survival rates were 86.4% (experimental) and 100% (control). There were no statistically significant correlations between baseline ISQ values and early implant failure, bone quality variables, or implant dimension. ROC analysis showed that baseline ISQ values cannot predict early implant failure.


Baseline RFA measurements were not able to predict early failure of immediately loaded implants placed in the posterior maxilla and therefore should not be used to determine whether an implant is a candidate for immediate nonfunctional loading in this region of the mouth.