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Effect of insertion torque on titanium implant osseointegration: an animal experimental study

Authors

  • Joke Duyck,

    Corresponding author
    1. Department of Oral Health Sciences & Dental Clinic, KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven, BIOMAT KU Leuven & Prosthetics Unit, Leuven, Belgium
    • Corresponding author:

      Joke Duyck

      Department of Oral Health Sciences & Dental Clinic

      KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven

      BIOMAT KU Leuven & Prosthetics Unit

      Kapucijnenvoer 7 blok a box 7001

      BE-3000 Leuven

      Belgium

      Tel.: +3216332468

      Fax: +3216332309

      e-mail: joke.duyck@uzleuven.be

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  • Rutger Roesems,

    1. Department of Oral Health Sciences & Dental Clinic, KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven, BIOMAT KU Leuven & Prosthetics Unit, Leuven, Belgium
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  • Marcio V. Cardoso,

    1. Department of Oral Health Sciences & Dental Clinic, KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven, BIOMAT KU Leuven & Prosthetics Unit, Leuven, Belgium
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  • Toru Ogawa,

    1. Division of Advanced Prosthetic Dentistry, Tohoku University Graduate School of Dentistry, Sendai, Japan
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  • Germana De Villa Camargos,

    1. Department of Oral Health Sciences & Dental Clinic, KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven, BIOMAT KU Leuven & Prosthetics Unit, Leuven, Belgium
    2. Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba Dental School, Piracicaba, SP, Brazil
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  • Katleen Vandamme

    1. Department of Oral Health Sciences & Dental Clinic, KU Leuven & University Hospitals Leuven, BIOMAT KU Leuven & Prosthetics Unit, Leuven, Belgium
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Abstract

Objective

To evaluate the effect of implant insertion torque on the peri-implant bone healing and implant osseointegration.

Material and methods

Bilaterally in the tibia of five adult New Zealand white rabbits, 20 implants were installed, subdivided into four groups, corresponding to two insertion torque conditions (low, < 10 Ncm vs. high > 50 Ncm) and 2 experimental periods (2 weeks vs. 4 weeks of healing). The implant insertion torque was determined by the surgical drill diameter relative to the implant diameter. Implant osseointegration was evaluated by quantitative histology (bone-to-implant contact with host bone [BIC-host], with neoformed bone [BIC-de novo], with both bone types [BIC-total], and peri-implant bone [BA/TA]). Every response was modelled over time using GEE (general estimation equation) with an unstructured variance–covariance matrix to correct for dependency between the measurements from one animal. The statistical significance level of α = 0.05 was applied.

Results

Significantly, more BIC-host and BIC-total were recorded for H implants compared with L implants after 2 week of healing (= 0.010 and = 0.0001, respectively). However, this result was no longer found for the extended healing period. Furthermore, BIC-total significantly increased over time for L implants (P < 0.00001). In contrast, the significant increase in BA/TA over time was found for H implants (P < 0.01). Finally, H insertion torque led to an increased BA/TA after 4 week of healing (P < 0.02) compared with the L insertion protocol.

Conclusion

L insertion torque implants installed in the rabbit tibial bone osseointegrate with considerable de novo bone formation. This bone neoformation enables L implants to catch up, already during the early osseointegration stage, the initial inferior amount BIC contact compared with that of H implants. A negative impact of the created strain environment accompanying H insertion torque implant installation on the biological process of osseointegration could not be observed, at least not at tissue level.

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