Smoking and the risk of peri-implantitis. A systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors

  • Fabrizio Sgolastra,

    Corresponding author
    1. School of Dentistry, Department of Life, Health, and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
    • Corresponding author:

      Dr. Fabrizio Sgolastra, DDS, PhD

      School of Dentistry Dental Clinic

      University of L'Aquila

      V.leVetoio 1

      Building Delta 6

      67100 L'Aquila

      Italy

      Tel.: 0390862434787

      Fax: 0390862434785

      e-mail: fabrizio.sgolastra@gmail.com

    Search for more papers by this author
  • Ambra Petrucci,

    1. School of Dentistry, Department of Life, Health, and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Marco Severino,

    1. School of Dentistry, Department of Life, Health, and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Roberto Gatto,

    1. School of Dentistry, Department of Life, Health, and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Annalisa Monaco

    1. School of Dentistry, Department of Life, Health, and Environmental Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy
    Search for more papers by this author

Abstract

Objective

The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the role of smoking as a risk factor for peri-implantitis.

Material and methods

Six electronic databases and a manual search resulted in 5876 unique publications. After selection, only seven studies were included in the systematic review. Dichotomous data were expressed as risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A generic inverse variance statistical model was used. Due to the expected interstudy heterogeneity, a random effect model was used for both data types. Heterogeneity was assessed with the Cochrane χ2 and I2 tests. The pooled effect was considered significant for a P-value <0.05.

Results

The implant-based meta-analysis revealed a higher and significant risk of peri-implantitis in smokers (RR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.34–3.29, = 0.001) compared with nonsmokers, but the patient-based meta-analysis did not reveal any significant differences for risk of peri-implantitis in smokers (RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.78–1.75, = 0.46). No evidence of significant heterogeneity was detected for the two analyses (χ2 = 0.64, = 0.89; I2 = 0% and χ2 = 2.44, = 0.30; I2 = 18%, respectively, for implant- and patient-based meta-analyses).

Conclusion

There is little evidence that smoking is a risk factor for peri-implantitis. However, given the low number of included studies, future studies are needed to confirm these results.

Ancillary