Present address: University of Zürich, University Children's Hospital, Department of Infectious Diseases and Cancer Research, August-Forel Strasse 1, CH-8008 Zürich, Switzerland.
Actin-mediated plasma membrane plasticity of the intracellular parasite Theileria annulata
Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012
© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Volume 14, Issue 12, pages 1867–1879, December 2012
How to Cite
Kühni-Boghenbor, K., Ma, M., Lemgruber, L., Cyrklaff, M., Frischknecht, F., Gaschen, V., Stoffel, M. and Baumgartner, M. (2012), Actin-mediated plasma membrane plasticity of the intracellular parasite Theileria annulata. Cellular Microbiology, 14: 1867–1879. doi: 10.1111/cmi.12006
- Issue published online: 19 NOV 2012
- Article first published online: 4 SEP 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 15 AUG 2012 06:40AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 7 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 6 AUG 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 22 JUN 2012
- Manuscript Received: 24 FEB 2012
- Swiss National Science Foundation. Grant Number: SNF_31003A_127025/1
- University of Bern
- University of Heidelberg Excellence Cluster CellNetwork
- Chica and Heinz Schaller Foundation
Movie S1. Live-video microscopy of T. annulata-infected TaC12 cells. 640× magnification (cropped), 60 s intervals, 60 min recording, 600× acceleration.
Movie S2. Live-video microscopy of isolated T. annulata schizonts. 640× magnification (cropped), 30 s intervals, 60 min recording, 300× acceleration.
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Movie S3. Live-video microscopy of isolated T. annulata schizonts. 640× magnification (cropped), 30 s intervals, 60 min recording, 300× acceleration.
Movie S4. Live-video microscopy of isolated T. annulata schizonts. 640× magnification (cropped), 30 s intervals, 120 min recording, 300× acceleration.
Movie S5. Isolated T. annulata schizonts were allowed to start protrusion formation for 45 min. Cytochalasin D at a concentration of 2 μM was the added and live-video microscopy was performed. 64× magnification (cropped), 30 s intervals, 45 min recording, 300× acceleration.
Fig. S1. Sequence alignment of actins from Toxoplasma gondii (TgACTI), Plasmodium falciparum (PfACTI) and Theileria annulata (TaACT1). Residues that were demonstrated to give instability to actin filaments (G200S and K270M) are indicated by an asterisk.
Fig. S2. Isolated parasites were incubated with antibody raised against Toxoplasma actin and anti-TaSP antibody. Isolated parasites were fixed immediately after purification (A) or after 1 h in medium (B) to induce membranous protrusions. Arrowheads indicate dotted anti-actin immunoreactivity in membranous protrusions. Arrowheads highlight actin dots inside membranous protrusions.
Fig. S3. Cryo-electron micrographs of isolated Theileria showing thin membranous protrusions (arrows) that end in a bulge-like structure (arrowhead). Some slices through the reconstructed tomograms are shown in Fig. 5. Bars = 400 nm.
Fig. S4. Cryo-electron micrographs of isolated Theileria showing thick membranous protrusions (arrows), presenting membranous structures inside them (arrowhead). Some slices through the reconstructed tomograms are shown in Fig. 6. Bars = 400 nm.
Fig. S5. Cryo-electron tomography analysis of a thick filamentous protrusion of Theileria.
A. A slice through a tomogram of a thick membranous protrusion (white arrows) of an isolated Theileria. Arrowhead indicates a membranous structure of twisted shape inside the protrusion.
B. Higher magnification of the membranous structure (arrowhead) inside the protrusion.
C. Slice through the tomogram in a different Z-projection showing some filamentous structures (black arrows).
Bars: A = 200 nm; B and C = 100 nm.
Fig. S6. Theileria protrusion shown in Fig. 8 after 3D modelling and rendering. The plasma membrane is in green, membranous structures in yellow and magenta, and the actin filaments in blue.
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