Ubiquitination (ubiquitylation) is a common protein modification that regulates a multitude of processes within the cell. This modification is typically accomplished through the covalent binding of ubiquitin to a lysine residue onto a target protein and is catalysed by the presence of three enzymes: an activating enzyme (E1), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) and ubiquitin-protein ligase (E3). In recent years, ubiquitination has risen as a major signalling regulator of immunity and microbial pathogenesis in the mammalian system. Still, little is known about how ubiquitin relates specifically to vector immunology. Here, we provide a brief overview of ubiquitin biochemistry and describe how ubiquitination regulates immune responses in arthropods of medical relevance. We also discuss scientific gaps in the literature and suggest that, similar to mammals, ubiquitin is a major regulator of immunity in medically important arthropods.