Nutrient sensing and metabolic stress pathways in innate immunity


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Cells monitor nutrient availability through several highly conserved pathways that include the mTOR signalling axis regulated by AKT/PI3K, HIF and AMPK, as well as the GCN2/eIF2α integrated stress response pathway that provides cellular adaptation to amino acid starvation. Recent evidence has identified a critical interplay between these nutrient sensing pathways and innate immunity to bacterial pathogens, viruses and parasites. These observations suggest that, in addition to the well-characterized pro-inflammatory signalling mediated by pattern recognition molecules, a metabolic stress programme contributes to shape the global response to pathogens.