SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Agrawal, A., Lingappa, J., Leppla, S.H., Agrawal, S., Jabbar, A., Quinn, C., and Pulendran, B. (2003) Impairment of dendritic cells and adaptive immunity by anthrax lethal toxin. Nature 424: 329334.
  • Barth, H., Aktories, K., Popoff, M.R., and Stiles, B.G. (2004) Binary bacterial toxins: biochemistry, biology, and applications of common Clostridium and Bacillus proteins. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 68: 373402, table of contents.
  • Borregaard, N., and Cowland, J.B. (1997) Granules of the human neutrophilic polymorphonuclear leukocyte. Blood 89: 35033521.
  • Boyer, A.E., Quinn, C.P., Woolfitt, A.R., Pirkle, J.L., McWilliams, L.G., Stamey, K.L., et al. (2007) Detection and quantification of anthrax lethal factor in serum by mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 79: 84638470.
  • Brachman, P.S. (1980) Inhalation anthrax. Ann N Y Acad Sci 353: 8393.
  • Brookmeyer, R., and Blades, N. (2002) Prevention of inhalational anthrax in the U.S. outbreak. Science 295: 1861.
  • Cote, C.K., Rea, K.M., Norris, S.L., van Rooijen, N., and Welkos, S.L. (2004) The use of a model of in vivo macrophage depletion to study the role of macrophages during infection with Bacillus anthracis spores. Microb Pathog 37: 169175.
  • Cote, C.K., Van Rooijen, N., and Welkos, S.L. (2006) Roles of macrophages and neutrophils in the early host response to Bacillus anthracis spores in a mouse model of infection. Infect Immun 74: 469480.
  • Crawford, M.A., Aylott, C.V., Bourdeau, R.W., and Bokoch, G.M. (2006) Bacillus anthracis toxins inhibit human neutrophil NADPH oxidase activity. J Immunol 176: 75577565.
  • Duesbery, N.S., Webb, C.P., Leppla, S.H., Gordon, V.M., Klimpel, K.R., Copeland, T.D., et al. (1998) Proteolytic inactivation of MAP-kinase-kinase by anthrax lethal factor. Science 280: 734737.
  • During, R.L., Li, W., Hao, B., Koenig, J.M., Stephens, D.S., Quinn, C.P., and Southwick, F.S. (2005) Anthrax lethal toxin paralyzes neutrophil actin-based motility. J Infect Dis 192: 837845.
  • Eisenhauer, P.B., and Lehrer, R.I. (1992) Mouse neutrophils lack defensins. Infect Immun 60: 34463447.
  • Glomski, I.J., Fritz, J.H., Keppler, S.J., Balloy, V., Chignard, M., Mock, M., and Goossens, P.L. (2007a) Murine splenocytes produce inflammatory cytokines in a MyD88-dependent response to Bacillus anthracis spores. Cell Microbiol 9: 502513.
  • Glomski, I.J., Piris-Gimenez, A., Huerre, M., Mock, M., and Goossens, P.L. (2007b) Primary involvement of pharynx and Peyer's patch in inhalational and intestinal anthrax. PLoS Pathog 3: e76.
  • Goossens, P.L. (2009) Animal models of human anthrax: the Quest for the Holy Grail. Mol Aspects Med 30: 467480.
  • Ivanova, N., Sorokin, A., Anderson, I., Galleron, N., Candelon, B., Kapatral, V., et al. (2003) Genome sequence of Bacillus cereus and comparative analysis with Bacillus anthracis. Nature 423: 8791.
  • Janes, B.K., and Stibitz, S. (2006) Routine markerless gene replacement in Bacillus anthracis. Infect Immun 74: 19491953.
  • Kintzer, A.F., Thoren, K.L., Sterling, H.J., Dong, K.C., Feld, G.K., Tang, I.I., et al. (2009) The protective antigen component of anthrax toxin forms functional octameric complexes. J Mol Biol 392: 614629.
  • Kintzer, A.F., Tang, I.I., Schawel, A.K., Brown, M.J., and Krantz, B.A. (2012) Anthrax toxin protective antigen integrates poly-gamma-D-glutamate and pH signals to sense the optimal environment for channel formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109: 1837818383.
  • Leppla, S.H. (1982) Anthrax toxin edema factor: a bacterial adenylate cyclase that increases cyclic AMP concentrations of eukaryotic cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79: 31623166.
  • Levchenko, A., and Iglesias, P.A. (2002) Models of eukaryotic gradient sensing: application to chemotaxis of amoebae and neutrophils. Biophys J 82: 5063.
  • Lin, F., Nguyen, C.M., Wang, S.J., Saadi, W., Gross, S.P., and Jeon, N.L. (2004) Effective neutrophil chemotaxis is strongly influenced by mean IL-8 concentration. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 319: 576581.
  • Liu, S., Wang, H., Currie, B.M., Molinolo, A., Leung, H.J., Moayeri, M., et al. (2008) Matrix metalloproteinase-activated anthrax lethal toxin demonstrates high potency in targeting tumor vasculature. J Biol Chem 283: 529540.
  • Liu, S., Miller-Randolph, S., Crown, D., Moayeri, M., Sastalla, I., Okugawa, S., and Leppla, S.H. (2010) Anthrax toxin targeting of myeloid cells through the CMG2 receptor is essential for establishment of Bacillus anthracis infections in mice. Cell Host Microbe 8: 455462.
  • Lovchik, J.A., Drysdale, M., Koehler, T.M., Hutt, J.A., and Lyons, C.R. (2012) Expression of either lethal toxin or edema toxin by Bacillus anthracis is sufficient for virulence in a rabbit model of inhalational anthrax. Infect Immun 80: 24142425.
  • Loving, C.L., Khurana, T., Osorio, M., Lee, G.M., Kelly, V.K., Stibitz, S., and Merkel, T.J. (2009) Role of anthrax toxins in dissemination, disease progression, and induction of protective adaptive immunity in the mouse aerosol challenge model. Infect Immun 77: 255265.
  • Lowe, D.E., and Glomski, I.J. (2012) Cellular and physiological effects of anthrax exotoxin and its relevance to disease. Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2: 76.
  • Makino, S., Uchida, I., Terakado, N., Sasakawa, C., and Yoshikawa, M. (1989) Molecular characterization and protein analysis of the cap region, which is essential for encapsulation in Bacillus anthracis. J Bacteriol 171: 722730.
  • Makino, S., Watarai, M., Cheun, H.I., Shirahata, T., and Uchida, I. (2002) Effect of the lower molecular capsule released from the cell surface of Bacillus anthracis on the pathogenesis of anthrax. J Infect Dis 186: 227233.
  • Mauer, A.M., Athens, J.W., Ashenbrucker, H., Cartwright, G.E., and Wintrobe, M.M. (1960) Leukokinetic studies. Ii. A method for labeling granulocytes in vitro with radioactive Diisopropylfluorophosphate (Dfp). J Clin Invest 39: 14811486.
  • Mayer-Scholl, A., Hurwitz, R., Brinkmann, V., Schmid, M., Jungblut, P., Weinrauch, Y., and Zychlinsky, A. (2005) Human neutrophils kill Bacillus anthracis. PLoS Pathog 1: e23.
  • Meselson, M., Guillemin, J., Hugh-Jones, M., Langmuir, A., Popova, I., Shelokov, A., and Yampolskaya, O. (1994) The Sverdlovsk anthrax outbreak of 1979. Science 266: 12021208.
  • Moayeri, M., and Leppla, S.H. (2009) Cellular and systemic effects of anthrax lethal toxin and edema toxin. Mol Aspects Med 30: 439455.
  • Moayeri, M., Haines, D., Young, H.A., and Leppla, S.H. (2003) Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin induces TNF-alpha-independent hypoxia-mediated toxicity in mice. J Clin Invest 112: 670682.
  • Moayeri, M., Wiggins, J.F., and Leppla, S.H. (2007) Anthrax protective antigen cleavage and clearance from the blood of mice and rats. Infect Immun 75: 51755184.
  • Moayeri, M., Crown, D., Newman, Z.L., Okugawa, S., Eckhaus, M., Cataisson, C., et al. (2010) Inflammasome sensor Nlrp1b-dependent resistance to anthrax is mediated by caspase-1, IL-1 signaling and neutrophil recruitment. PLoS Pathog 6: e1001222.
  • Mock, M., and Fouet, A. (2001) Anthrax. Annu Rev Microbiol 55: 647671.
  • Mukherjee, D.V., Tonry, J.H., Kim, K.S., Ramarao, N., Popova, T.G., Bailey, C., et al. (2011) Bacillus anthracis protease InhA increases blood-brain barrier permeability and contributes to cerebral hemorrhages. PLoS ONE 6: e17921.
  • O'Brien, J., Friedlander, A., Dreier, T., Ezzell, J., and Leppla, S. (1985) Effects of anthrax toxin components on human neutrophils. Infect Immun 47: 306310.
  • Otto, M. (2012) MRSA virulence and spread. Cell Microbiol 14: 15131521. doi: 10.1111/j.1462-5822.2012.01832.x. Epub 17 July 2012. PMID: 22747834.
  • Paccani, S.R., and Baldari, C.T. (2011) T cell targeting by anthrax toxins: two faces of the same coin. Toxins (Basel) 3: 660671.
  • Preshaw, P.M., Schifferle, R.E., and Walters, J.D. (1999) Porphyromonas gingivalis lipopolysaccharide delays human polymorphonuclear leukocyte apoptosis in vitro. J Periodontal Res 34: 197202.
  • Rossi Paccani, S., Tonello, F., Patrussi, L., Capitani, N., Simonato, M., Montecucco, C., and Baldari, C.T. (2007) Anthrax toxins inhibit immune cell chemotaxis by perturbing chemokine receptor signalling. Cell Microbiol 9: 924929.
  • Safran, M., Kim, W.Y., Kung, A.L., Horner, J.W., DePinho, R.A., and Kaelin, W.G., Jr (2003) Mouse reporter strain for noninvasive bioluminescent imaging of cells that have undergone Cre-mediated recombination. Mol Imaging 2: 297302.
  • Schneerson, R., Kubler-Kielb, J., Liu, T.Y., Dai, Z.D., Leppla, S.H., Yergey, A., et al. (2003) Poly(gamma-D-glutamic acid) protein conjugates induce IgG antibodies in mice to the capsule of Bacillus anthracis: a potential addition to the anthrax vaccine. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100: 89458950.
  • Stanley, J.L., and Smith, H. (1961) Purification of factor I and recognition of a third factor of anthrax toxin. J Gen Microbiol 282: 4966.
  • Stevens, D.L., Aldape, M.J., and Bryant, A.E. (2012) Life-threatening clostridial infections. Anaerobe 18: 254259. doi: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.11.001. Epub 20 November 2011. PMID: 22120198.
  • Summers, C., Rankin, S.M., Condliffe, A.M., Singh, N., Peters, A.M., and Chilvers, E.R. (2010) Neutrophil kinetics in health and disease. Trends Immunol 31: 318324.
  • Szarowicz, S.E., During, R.L., Li, W., Quinn, C.P., Tang, W.J., and Southwick, F.S. (2009) Bacillus anthracis edema toxin impairs neutrophil actin-based motility. Infect Immun 77: 24552464.
  • Tkalcevic, J., Novelli, M., Phylactides, M., Iredale, J.P., Segal, A.W., and Roes, J. (2000) Impaired immunity and enhanced resistance to endotoxin in the absence of neutrophil elastase and cathepsin G. Immunity 12: 201210.
  • Vitale, G., Pellizzari, R., Recchi, C., Napolitani, G., Mock, M., and Montecucco, C. (1998) Anthrax lethal factor cleaves the N-terminus of MAPKKs and induces tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation of MAPKs in cultured macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 248: 706711.
  • Wade, B.H., Wright, G.G., Hewlett, E.L., Leppla, S.H., and Mandell, G.L. (1985) Anthrax toxin components stimulate chemotaxis of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 179: 159162.
  • Walsh, J.J., Pesik, N., Quinn, C.P., Urdaneta, V., Dykewicz, C.A., Boyer, A.E., et al. (2007) A case of naturally acquired inhalation anthrax: clinical care and analyses of anti-protective antigen immunoglobulin G and lethal factor. Clin Infect Dis 44: 968971.
  • Weiner, Z.P., Boyer, A.E., Gallegos-Candela, M., Cardani, A.N., Barr, J.R., and Glomski, I.J. (2012) Debridement increases survival in a mouse model of subcutaneous anthrax. PLoS ONE 7: e30201.
  • Welkos, S.L., Trotter, R.W., Becker, D.M., and Nelson, G.O. (1989) Resistance to the Sterne strain of B. anthracis: phagocytic cell responses of resistant and susceptible mice. Microb Pathog 7: 1535.
  • Xu, L., Fang, H., and Frucht, D.M. (2008) Anthrax lethal toxin increases superoxide production in murine neutrophils via differential effects on MAPK signaling pathways. J Immunol 180: 41394147.