• 1
    WHO Consultation on Obesity. Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. Report of A WHO Consultation. World Health Organization: Geneva, 2000, WHO Technical Report Series 894.
  • 2
    Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ et al. on behalf of the Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases Collaborating Group (Body Mass Index). National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9.1 million participants. Lancet 2011; 377: 557567.
  • 3
    Lissner L, Sohlström A, Sundblom E, Sjöberg A. Trends in overweight and obesity in Swedish schoolchildren 1999–2005: has the epidemic reached a plateau? Obes Rev 2009; 11: 553559.
  • 4
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Lamb MM, Flegal KM. Prevalence of high body mass index in US children and adolescents, 2007–2008. JAMA 2010; 303: 335341.
  • 5
    Rokholm B, Baker JL, Sørensen TIA. The leveling off of the obesity epidemic since the year 1999 – a review of evidence and perspectives. Obes Rev 2010; 11: 835846.
  • 6
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Ogden CL, Curtin LR. Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA 2010; 303: 235241.
  • 7
    Salopuro TM, Saaristo T, Oksa H et al. Population-level effects of the national diabetes prevention programme (FIN-D2D) on the body weight, the waist circumference, and the prevalence of obesity. BMC Public Health 2011 May 19; 11: 350. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-350.
  • 8
    Griffiths C, Gately P, Marchant PR, Cooke CB. Cross-sectional comparisons of BMI and waist circumference in British children: mixed public health messages. Obesity 2012; 20: 12581260.
  • 9
    Flegal KM, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Ogden CL. Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999–2010. JAMA 2012; 307: 491497.
  • 10
    Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Kit BK, Flegal KM. Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999–2010. JAMA 2012; 307: 483490.
  • 11
    Midthjell K, Krüger Ø, Holmen J et al. Rapid changes in the prevalence of obesity and known diabetes mellitus in an adult Norwegian population. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Surveys: 1984–1986 and 1995–1997. Diabetes Care 1999; 22: 18131820.
  • 12
    Malnick SDH, Knobler H. The medical complications of obesity. Q J Med 2006; 99: 565579.
  • 13
    Prospective Studies Collaboration. Body mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies. Lancet 2009; 373: 10831096.
  • 14
    Preston SH, Stokes A. Contribution of obesity to international differences in life expectancy. Am J Public Health 2011; 101: 21372143.
  • 15
    Wang Y, Rimm EB, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Hu FB. Comparison of abdominal adiposity and overall obesity in predicting risk of type 2 diabetes among men. Am J Clin Nutr 2005; 81: 555563.
  • 16
    Pischon T, Boeing H, Hoffmann K et al. General and abdominal obesity and risk of death in Europe. N Engl J Med 2008; 359: 21052120.
  • 17
    Hotchkiss JW, Leyland AH. The relationship between body size and mortality in the linked Scottish Heath Surveys: cross-sectional surveys with follow-up. Int J Obes 2011; 35: 838851.
  • 18
    Czernikow S, Kengne A-P, Stamatakis E, Hamer M, Batty GD. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio: which is the better discriminator of cardiovascular disease mortality risk? Evidence from an individual-participant meta-analysis of 82 864 participants from nine cohort srudies. Obes Rev 2011; 12: 680687.
  • 19
    Leitzmann MF, Moore SC, Koster A et al. Waist circumference as compared with body-mass index in predicting mortality from specific causes. PLoS ONE 2011; 6: e18582.1–8.
  • 20
    Janssen I, Katzmarzyk PT, Ross R. Body mass index, waist circumference, and health risk. Arch Intern Med 2002; 162: 20742079.
  • 21
    Holmen J, Midthjell K, Krüger Ø et al. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Study 1995–97 (HUNT 2). Objectives, contents, methods and participation. Nor J Epidemiol 2003; 13: 1932.
  • 22
    Andreassen KK, Dzamarija MT. Befolkning (Population). In: Henriksen K , Østby L , Ellingsen D. Innvandring og innvandrere 2010 (Immigration and immigrants 2010). Oslo: Statistics Norway 2011. Statistical Analyses 119. Electronic version: ISBN 978-82-537-12-2 (In Norwegian).
  • 23
    Holmen J, Midthjell K, Bjartveit K et al. The Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey 1984–86. Purpose, background and methods. participation, non-participation and frequency distributions. National Institute of Public Health: Verdal, 1990. pp. 1257. (Report no. 4/1990).
  • 24
    Krokstad S, Langhammer A, Hveem K et al. Cohort profile: the HUNT Study, Norway. Int J Epidemiol 2012; 41: 110. doi:10.1093/ije/dys095.
  • 25
    World Health Organization. Waist Circumference and Waist-Hip Ratio. Report of A WHO Expert Consultation, Geneva 8–11 December 2008. World Health Organization: Geneva, 2011.
  • 26
    Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education program (NCEP) Expert Panel on detection, evaluation and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) final report. Circulation 2002; 106: 31433421.
  • 27
    Okosun IS, Chandra KMD, Boev A et al. Abdominal adiposity in U.S. adults: prevalence and trends, 1960–2000. Prev Med 2004; 39: 197206.
  • 28
    Han TS, van Leer EM, Seidell JC, Lean MEJ. Waist circumference action levels in the identification of cardiovascular risk factors: prevalence study in a random sample. BMJ 1995; 311: 14011405.
  • 29
    Lean MEJ, Han TS, Morrison CE. Waist circumference as a measure for indicating need for weight management. BMJ 1995; 311: 158161.
  • 30
    Alberti KGGM, Zimmet P, Shaw J. Metabolic syndrome – a new world-wide definition. A consensus statement from the International Diabetes Federation. Diabet Med 2006; 23: 469480.
  • 31
    International Diabetes Federation.. The IDF Consensus Worldwide Definition of the Metabolic Syndrome. International Diabetes Federation: Brussels, 2006.
  • 32
    Power C, Thomas C. Changes in BMI, duration of overweight and obesity, and glucose metabolism: 45 years of follow-up of a birth cohort. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 19861991.
  • 33
    Meyer HE, Tverdal A. Development of body weight in the Norwegian population. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids 2005; 73: 37.
  • 34
    Andersen LF, Lillegaard ITL, Øverby N et al. Overweight and obesity among Norwegian schoolchildren: changes from 1993 to 2000. Scand J Public Health 2005; 33: 99106.
  • 35
    Bjørnelv S, Lydersen S, Holmen J, Nilsen TIL, Holmen TL. Sex differences in time trends for overweight and obesity in adolescents: the Young-HUNT Study. Scand J Public Health 2009; 37: 881889.
  • 36
    Gómez-Ambrosi J, Silva C, Galofré JC et al. Body mass index classification misses subjects with increased cardiometabolic risk factors related to elevated adiposity. Int J Obes 2012; 36: 286294.
  • 37
    Huxley R, Mendis S, Zheleznyakov E, Reddy S, Chan J. Body mass index, waist circumference and waist:hip ratio as predictors of cardiovascular risk – a review of the literature. Eur J Clin Nutr 2010; 64: 1622.
  • 38
    Belloco R, Jia C, Ye W, Lagerros YT. Effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference on total mortality risk in the Swedish National March Cohort. Eur J Epidemiol 2010; 25: 777788.
  • 39
    Højgaard B, Gyrd-Hansen D, Olsen KR, Søgaard J, Sørensen TIA. Waist circumference and body mass index as predictors of health care costs. PLoS ONE 2008; 3: e2619. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002619.
  • 40
    Cameron AJ, Boyko EJ, Sicree RA et al. Central obesity as a precursor to the metabolic syndrome in the AusDiab Study and Mauritius. Obesity 2008; 16: 27072716.
  • 41
    Berentzen TL, Jakobsen MU, Halkjær J et al. Changes in waist circumference and mortality in middle-aged men and women. PLoS ONE 2010; 5: e13097. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0013097.
  • 42
    Sluik D, Boeing H, Montonen J et al. Associations between general and abdominal obesity and mortality in individuals with diabetes mellitus. Am J Epidemiol 2011; 174: 2234.
  • 43
    Janssen I, Shields M, Craig CL, Tremblay MS. Prevalence and secular changes in abdominal obesity in Canadian adolescents and adults, 1981 to 2007–2009. Obes Rev 2011; 12: 397405.
  • 44
    Lahti-Koski M, Harald K, Männistö S, Laatikainen T, Jousilahti P. Fifteen-year changes in body mass index and waist circumference in Finnish adults. Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007; 14: 398404.
  • 45
    Ford ES, Mokdad AH, Giles WH. Trends in waist circumference among U.S. adults. Obes Res 2003; 11: 12231231.
  • 46
    Cuypers K, Kvaløy K, Bratberg G et al. Being normal weight but feeling overweight in adolescence may affect weight development into young adulthood – An 11-year followup: the HUNT Study, Norway. J Obes 2012; 2012: 601872. doi: 10.1155/2012/601872. Epub 2012 May 16.
  • 47
    Rosmond R. Androgen excess in women – a health hazard? Med Hypotheses 2006; 67: 229234.
  • 48
    Baghaei F, Rosmond R, Westberg L et al. The CYP19 gene and associations with androgens and abdominal obesity in premenopausal women. Obes Res 2003; 11: 578585.
  • 49
    Sowers MF, Beebe JL, McDonnell D, Randolph J, Jannausch M. Testosterone concentrations in women aged 25–50 years: associations with lifestyle, body composition, and ovarian status. Am J Epidemiol 2001; 153: 256264.
  • 50
    Janssen I, Powell LH, Kazlauskaite R, Dugan SA. Testosterone and visceral fat in midlife women: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Fat Patterning Study. Obesity 2010; 18: 604610.
  • 51
    Gorber SC, Tremblay M, Moher D, Gorber B. A comparison of direct vs. self-report measures for assessing height, weight and body mass index: a systematic review. Obes Rev 2007; 8: 307326.
  • 52
    Krul AJ, Daanen HAM, Choi H. Self-reported and measured weight, height and body mass index (BMI) in Italy, the Netherlands and North America. Eur J Public Health 2011; 21: 414419.
  • 53
    Hayes AJ, Clarke PM, Lung TWC. Change in bias in self-reported body mass index in Australia between 1995 and 2008 and the evaluation of correction equations. Popul Health Metr 2011; 9: 53. doi:10.1186/1478-7954-9-53.
  • 54
    Langhammer A, Krokstad S, Romundstad P, Heggland J, Holmen J. The HUNT study: participation is associated with survival and depends on socioeconomic status, diseases and symptoms. BMC Med Res Methodol 2012; 12: 143.
  • 55
    Jacobsen BK, Njølstad I, Thune I et al. Increase in weight in all birth cohorts in a general population. The Tromsø Study 1974–1994. Arch Intern Med 2001; 161: 466473.
  • 56
    Faeh D, Braun J, Bopp M. Prevalence of obesity in Switzerland 1992–2007: the impact of education, income and occupational class. Obes Rev 2011; 12: 151166.