Disclaimer: Supplementary materials have been peer-reviewed but not copyedited.

cobi12092-sup-0001-suppmat.doc2811KDetail explaining the methodology behind deriving the likelihood of detecting a real trend (Appendix S1), calculating monitoring costs (Appendix S2), and calculating surrogacy values (Appendix S3) for each species are available online. Also available online are the link to the MATLAB code and illustrations of outputs from the optimization approach (Appendix S4), the results of sensitivity analyses (Appendix S5), and further descriptions of the 2 benefit metrics (Appendix S6). The authors are solely responsible for the content and functionality of these materials. Queries (other than absence of the material) should be directed to the corresponding author.

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