Lichen Conservation in Heavily Managed Boreal Forests
Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2013
© 2013 Society for Conservation Biology
Volume 27, Issue 5, pages 1020–1030, October 2013
How to Cite
MCMULLIN, R. T., THOMPSON, I. D. and NEWMASTER, S. G. (2013), Lichen Conservation in Heavily Managed Boreal Forests. Conservation Biology, 27: 1020–1030. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12094
- Issue online: 19 SEP 2013
- Version of Record online: 21 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 31 JAN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 22 NOV 2012
- Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada
- Biodiversity Institute of Ontario Herbarium
- 1997. Estimating lichen biomass and caribou grazing on the wintering grounds of northern Québec: an application of fire history and Landsat data. Journal of Applied Ecology 34:65–78. , , , , and .
- 1997. Basing silviculture on natural ecosystem dynamics: an approach applied to the southern boreal mixedwood forest of Quebec. Forest Ecology and Management 92:235–242. , and .
- 1972. Food habits of Newfoundland caribou. Journal of Wildlife Management 36:913–932.
- 2002. Habitat associations of epiphytic lichens in managed and unmanaged forest stands in Nova Scotia. Northeastern Naturalist 9:27–46.
- CCFM (Canadian Council of Forest Ministers). 2011. National forest database. Available from http://nfdp.ccfm.org/index_e.php (accessed November 2012).
- 2003. State of the knowledge of woodland caribou in Ontario. Forestry Research Partnership, Mattawa, Ontario.
- 1970. A standardized method for the identification of lichen products. Journal of Chromatography 46:85–93. , and .
- 1997. Species assemblages and indicator species: the need for a flexible asymmetrical approach. Ecological Monographs 67:345–366. , and .
- 1997. Boreal forests. Ecological Bulletins 46:16–47. , , , and .
- 1998. Edge effects on an epiphytic lichen in fragmented forests. Conservation Biology 12:1307–1317. , and .
- 2012. A cumulative checklist for the lichen-forming, lichenicolous and allied fungi of the continental United States and Canada. North Dakota State University, Fargo. Available from http://www.ndsu.edu/pubweb/~esslinge/chcklst/chcklst7.htm (accessed December 2012).
- 2011. Caribou conservation in Canada: an uncertain future. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89:436–451. , , , , and .
- 2006. Effect of simulated reindeer grazing on the re-growth capacity of mat-forming lichens. Basic and Applied Ecology 7:109–121. , , , and .
- 2008. Rapid expansion of lichen woodlands within the closed-crown boreal forest zone over the last 50 years caused by stand disturbances in eastern Canada. Journal of Biogeography 35:529–537. , , and .
- 1998. Red-listed lichens in Sweden: habitats, threats, protection, and indicator value in boreal coniferous forests. Biodiversity and Conservation 7:59–72.
- 2003. High occurrence of red-listed bryophytes and lichens in mature managed forests in boreal Sweden. Basic and Applied Ecology 5:123–129. , , , , , and .
- 2007. The macrolichens of New England. The New York Botanical Garden Press, Bronx, New York. , and .
- 1992. Fire and vegetation dynamics. Studies from the North American boreal forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.
- 1964. Non-metric multidimensional scaling: a numerical method. Psychometrika 29:115–129.
- 2002. Natural variability of forests as a reference for restoring and managing biological diversity in boreal Fennoscandia. Silva Fennica 36:97–125.
- 1996. Epiphytic flora and diversity on basal trunks of six old-growth forest tree species in southern and middle boreal Finland. Lichenologist 28:443–463.
- 1991. Differences in lichen and bryophyte communities between old-growth and managed second-growth forests in the Swan Valley, Montana. Canadian Journal of Botany 69:1745–1755. , , , and .
- 2002. Congruence between natural and human forest disturbance: a case study from Australian montane ash forest. Forest Ecology and Management 155:319–335. , and .
- 1997. PC-ORD. Multivariate analysis of ecological data. Version 3.20. MjM Software Design, Gleneden Beach, Oregon. , and .
- 2008. Lichens of coniferous old-growth forests of southwestern Nova Scotia, Canada; diversity and present status. Bryologist 111:620–637. , , , , and .
- 2010. Relationships between the structural complexity and lichen community in coniferous forests of southwestern Nova Scotia. Forest Ecology and Management 260:744–749. , , , , , and .
- 2011a. The effects of triclopyr and glyphosate on lichens. Forest Ecology and Management 264:90–97. , , and .
- 2011b. Estimating the biomass of woodland caribou forage lichens in boreal Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 41:1–9. , , , and .
- 2001. Comparisons between wildfire and forest harvesting and their implications in forest management. Environmental Reviews 9:223–260. , , , , and .
- 1987. An evaluation of the relative robustness of techniques for ecological ordination. Vegetatio 69:89–107.
- Natural Resources Canada. 2005. The state of Canada's forests 2004–2005. Canadian Forest Service, Ottawa, Ontario.
- 1997. Hotspots of epiphytic lichen diversity in two young managed forests. Conservation Biology 11:172–182. , and .
- 1999. The effects of triclopyr and glyphosate on common bryophytes and lichens in Northwestern Ontario. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 29:1101–1111. , , and .
- 2002. The effects of silvicultural disturbances on cryptogam diversity in the boreal-mixedwood forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 32:38–51. , and .
- 2005. Patterns of bryophyte diversity in Canada's old growth rain forest. Environmental Reviews 11:159–185. , , , and .
- 2001. Microchemical methods for the identification of lichens. British Lichen Society, London. , , and .
- 2000. Light use efficiency of dry matter gain in five macro- lichens: relative impact of microclimate conditions and species-specific traits. Plant Cell and Environment 23:1–14. , and .
- 2003. Estimation of arboreal lichen biomass available to woodland caribou in Hudson Bay lowland black spruce sites. Rangifer 14(Special Issue):95–99. , , and .
- 2006. Importance of Forest Act habitats for epiphytic lichens in Finnish managed forests. Forest Ecology and Management 223:84–92. , , , and .
- 1997. The statistical sleuth: a course in methods of data analysis. Duxbury Press, Belmont, California. , and .
- 1997. Growth and vitality of epiphytic lichens I. Responses to microclimate along a forest edge-interior gradient. Oecologia 109:1–9. , , , and .
- 2003. Edge effects on epiphytic lichens in managed black spruce forests of eastern North America. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 33:23–32. , , , and .
- 1972. Forest regions of Canada. Publication 1300. Department of the Environment, Canadian Forestry Service, Ottawa, Ontario.
- 1973. Fire in the boreal forest. Quaternary Research 3:444–464. , and .
- 1990. Host specificity of epiphytic lichens and bryophytes: a comparison of the Adirondack Mountains (New York) and the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains (North Carolina). Bryologist 93:257–274. , and .
- 2007. Herbicide handbook. 9th edition. Weed Science Society of America, Lawrence, Kansas.
- 2009. Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland. Richmond Publishing, Slough, United Kingdom. , , , , , , and , editors.
- SPSS (2010). Professional base system software for statistical analysis. SPSS, Chicago, Illinois.
- 2008. Impacts of silvicultural treatments on arboreal lichen biomass in balsam fir stands on Québec's Gaspé Peninsula: implications for a relict caribou herd. Forest Ecology and Management 255:2733–2742. , , , , and .
- 2001. Microsite displacement of terrestrial lichens by feather moss mats in late seral pine-lichen woodlands of North-central British Columbia. Bryologist 104:505–516. , and .
- 2007. Woodland caribou extirpation and anthropogenic landscape disturbance in Ontario. Journal of Wildlife Management 71:1249–1256. , , , , and .
- 1984. Biostatistical analysis. 2nd edition. Prentice Hall, Engle-wood Cliffs, New Jersey.