Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts.
Sensitizing capacity of Disperse Orange 1 and its potential metabolites from azo reduction and their cross-reactivity pattern
Article first published online: 19 JUN 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd
Volume 69, Issue 1, pages 40–48, July 2013
How to Cite
Malinauskiene, L., Zimerson, E., Bruze, M., Ryberg, K. and Isaksson, M. (2013), Sensitizing capacity of Disperse Orange 1 and its potential metabolites from azo reduction and their cross-reactivity pattern. Contact Dermatitis, 69: 40–48. doi: 10.1111/cod.12078
- Issue published online: 19 JUN 2013
- Article first published online: 19 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 11 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Received: 3 FEB 2013
- Edvard Welander Foundation
- Finsen Foundation
- Skåne county council's research and development foundation
- azo dyes;
- Disperse Orange 1;
Simultaneous contact allergies to Disperse Orange 1, 4-nitroaniline and p-aminodiphenylamine (PADPA), as well as to other disperse azo dyes and to p-phenylenediamine (PPD), have been reported. Cross-reactivity is one of the possible explanations for simultaneous reactions between PPD and disperse azo dyes. Some metabolites from the azo reduction of these disperse azo dyes could be sensitizers, as human skin bacteria produce azo reductases.
To investigate the sensitizing capacity of Disperse Orange 1, PADPA and 4-nitroaniline, and the cross-reactivity between these substances and Disperse Yellow 3, its potential metabolites from azo reduction (4-aminoacetanilide and 2-amino-p-cresol), and PPD.
The guinea-pig maximization test was used.
It was found that both Disperse Orange 1 and PADPA are strong sensitizers and cross-react with each other. We were unable to sensitize guinea-pigs with 4-nitroaniline tested in equimolar concentrations to Disperse Orange 1.
The results indicate that patients sensitized primarily to Disperse Orange 1 will also react to PADPA, which can be found mainly in hair dyes. PPD, 4-nitroaniline, 4-aminoacetanilide, 2-amino-p-cresol and Disperse Yellow 3 did not show any cross-reactivity with Disperse Orange 1 or PADPA.