Sensitizing capacity of Disperse Orange 1 and its potential metabolites from azo reduction and their cross-reactivity pattern
Conflicts of interest: The authors have declared no conflicts.
Correspondence: Laura Malinauskiene,Vilnius Clinical Hospital Antakalnio affiliation, Allergy Centre, Antakalnio street 124, Vilnius LT-10200, Lithuania. Tel:+37061114673;Fax:+37052743843. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Simultaneous contact allergies to Disperse Orange 1, 4-nitroaniline and p-aminodiphenylamine (PADPA), as well as to other disperse azo dyes and to p-phenylenediamine (PPD), have been reported. Cross-reactivity is one of the possible explanations for simultaneous reactions between PPD and disperse azo dyes. Some metabolites from the azo reduction of these disperse azo dyes could be sensitizers, as human skin bacteria produce azo reductases.
To investigate the sensitizing capacity of Disperse Orange 1, PADPA and 4-nitroaniline, and the cross-reactivity between these substances and Disperse Yellow 3, its potential metabolites from azo reduction (4-aminoacetanilide and 2-amino-p-cresol), and PPD.
The guinea-pig maximization test was used.
It was found that both Disperse Orange 1 and PADPA are strong sensitizers and cross-react with each other. We were unable to sensitize guinea-pigs with 4-nitroaniline tested in equimolar concentrations to Disperse Orange 1.
The results indicate that patients sensitized primarily to Disperse Orange 1 will also react to PADPA, which can be found mainly in hair dyes. PPD, 4-nitroaniline, 4-aminoacetanilide, 2-amino-p-cresol and Disperse Yellow 3 did not show any cross-reactivity with Disperse Orange 1 or PADPA.