• Open Access

Planning Across Freshwater and Terrestrial Realms: Cobenefits and Tradeoffs Between Conservation Actions

Authors

  • Vanessa M. Adams,

    Corresponding author
    1. National Environmental Research Program Northern Australia Hub
    2. Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia
    3. Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
    • Correspondence Vanessa M. Adams, Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University Darwin, NT 0909, Australia.Tel: +61-8-8946-7449;fax: +61-8-8946-7455. E-mail: vanessa.adams@cdu.edu.au

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  • Jorge G. Álvarez-Romero,

    1. National Environmental Research Program Northern Australia Hub
    2. Research Institute for the Environment and Livelihoods, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, NT, Australia
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  • Josie Carwardine,

    1. CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Dutton Park, QLD, Australia
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  • Lorenzo Cattarino,

    1. Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan QLD, Australia
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  • Virgilio Hermoso,

    1. National Environmental Research Program Northern Australia Hub
    2. Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan QLD, Australia
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  • Mark J. Kennard,

    1. National Environmental Research Program Northern Australia Hub
    2. Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan QLD, Australia
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  • Simon Linke,

    1. National Environmental Research Program Northern Australia Hub
    2. Australian Rivers Institute, Griffith University, Nathan QLD, Australia
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  • Robert L. Pressey,

    1. National Environmental Research Program Northern Australia Hub
    2. Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, Australia
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  • Natalie Stoeckl

    1. National Environmental Research Program Northern Australia Hub
    2. School of Business and Cairns Institute, James Cook University, Townsville QLD, Australia
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  • Editor Prof. Reed Noss

Abstract

Conservation planning has historically been restricted to planning within single realms (i.e., marine, terrestrial, or freshwater). Recently progress has been made in approaches for cross-realm planning which may enhance the ability to effectively manage processes that sustain biodiversity and ecosystem functions (e.g., connectivity) and thus minimize threats more efficiently. Current advances, however, have not optimally accounted for the fact that individual conservation management actions often have impacts across realms. We advance the existing cross-realm planning literature by presenting a conceptual framework for considering both co-benefits and tradeoffs between multiple realms (specifically freshwater and terrestrial). This conceptual framework is founded on a review of 1) the shared threats and management actions across realms and 2) existing literature on cross-realm planning to highlight recent research achievements and gaps. We identify current challenges and opportunities associated with the application of our framework and consider the more general prospects for cross-realm planning.

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