[The copyright line for this article was changed on February 18, 2015 after original online publication]
Vessel Strikes to Large Whales Before and After the 2008 Ship Strike Rule
Article first published online: 1 MAY 2014
Copyright and Photocopying: ©2014 The Authors. Conservation Letters published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Volume 8, Issue 1, pages 24–32, January/February 2015
How to Cite
van der Hoop, J. M., Vanderlaan, A. S. M., Cole, T. V. N., Henry, A. G., Hall, L., Mase-Guthrie, B., Wimmer, T. and Moore, M. J. (2015), Vessel Strikes to Large Whales Before and After the 2008 Ship Strike Rule. Conservation Letters, 8: 24–32. doi: 10.1111/conl.12105
- Issue published online: 26 FEB 2015
- Article first published online: 1 MAY 2014
- Accepted manuscript online: 9 APR 2014 04:04PM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 2 APR 2014
- Manuscript Received: 26 DEC 2013
- North Pond Foundation
- M. S. Worthington Foundation
- Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC)
- right whale;
- ship strike;
- speed limit;
- ocean management;
- ocean zoning, mortality
To determine effectiveness of Seasonal Management Areas (SMAs), introduced in 2008 on the U.S. East Coast to reduce lethal vessel strikes to North Atlantic right whales, we analyzed observed large whale mortality events from 1990–2012 in the geographic region of the “Ship Strike Rule” to identify changes in frequency, spatial distribution, and spatiotemporal interaction since implementation. Though not directly coincident with SMA implementation, right whale vessel-strike mortalities significantly declined from 2.0 (2000–2006) to 0.33 per year (2007–2012). Large whale vessel-strike mortalities have decreased inside active SMAs, and increased outside inactive SMAs. We detected no significant spatiotemporal interaction in the 4-year pre- or post-Rule periods, although a longer time series is needed to detect these changes. As designed, SMAs encompass only 36% of historical right whale vessel-strike mortalities, and 32% are outside managed space but within managed timeframes. We suggest increasing spatial coverage to improve the Rule's effectiveness.