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Abstract

Objectives

To study cell cycle delay and metaphase arresting activity of leaf aqueous extract of Clerodendrum viscosum Vent. (LAECV) in root apical meristems and mouse bone marrow cells.

Materials and methods

Cell cycle delay and metaphase arresting activities of LAECV were analysed, in root apical meristems of onion and wheat, and in mouse bone marrow cells, by scoring mitotic index, metaphase frequency and transition of cells from metaphase to anaphase. Colchicine was used as the standard metaphase arresting drug. Phytochemicals present in LAECV were detected and their phytotoxic activity was evaluated by analysing green-gram (Vigna radiata) seedling's root growth retardation and branch root swelling phenomenon.

Results

LAECV treatment resulted in dose-dependent root growth retardation of green-gram seedling root length (P < 0.01) and half maximal growth inhibitory concentration (IC50) of LAECV was 0.87 mg/ml at 144 h. In onion and wheat root meristem cells the mitotic index decreased, metaphase frequency increased and transition from metaphase to anaphase reduced. Experimentation with mouse bone marrow cells indicated that LAECV induced metaphase arrest (164.3% increase in arrested metaphases per 300 mg/kg body weight, over 2.5 h). Phytochemicals like carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, triterpenoids, tannins and trace amounts of alkaloids were detected in LAECV.

Conclusion

It may be said that LAECV contains mitostatic and metaphase arresting components that are able to induce significant metaphase arrest in root apical meristems and also in mouse bone marrow cells.