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Abstract

Objectives

High mobility group protein2 (HMGA2) and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition are both related to progress of bladder cancer, however, the relationship between HMGA2, E-cadherin and vimentin in bladder cancer is not yet known. Thus, this study has examined expression of HMGA2, E-cadherin and vimentin in bladder cancer and investigated their relationship.

Materials and methods

The 5637 bladder cancer cell line and SV-HUC-1 normal uroepithelial cells were used to study expression of HMGA2, E-cadherin and vimentin using RT-PCR and western blotting. Paraffin wax-embedded bladder cancer tissues were used to study protein expression using immunohistochemistry and χ2 analysis and Kendall's correlation were utilized statistical methods.

Results

Overexpression of HMGA2 was associated with down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of vimentin in the 5637 bladder cancer line. A total of 49 paraffin wax-embedded tissues of transitional cell bladder cancer were used. Positive expression levels of HMGA2 protein and vimentin were 41 and 43% in bladder tissues, respectively. No expression of E-cadherin was found in 43%. Expression of HMGA2, loss of E-cadherin and expression of vimentin are all significantly correlated with bladder cancer grade and stage. Loss of E-cadherin and expression of vimentin both correlated with recurrence of the bladder cancer.

Conclusions

Expression of HMGA2 was closely associated with occurrence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Expression of HMGA2, loss of E-cadherin and expression of vimentin may indicate high degree malignancy of bladder cancer. Loss of E-cadherin expression and positive expression of vimentin may predict recurrence of bladder cancer.