Specificity of Rumination in Anxiety and Depression: A Multimodal Meta-Analysis

Authors


Address correspondence to Bunmi O. Olatunji, Department of Psychology, Vanderbilt University, 301 Wilson Hall, 111 21st Avenue South, Nashville, TN 37203. E-mail: olubunmi.o.olatunji@vanderbilt.edu.

Abstract

The present investigation employed a meta-analysis of 179 correlational studies and 37 clinical group comparison studies to examine the association between rumination and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Meta-analytic correlations revealed moderate associations between rumination and symptoms of anxiety and depression that were strongest for brooding and emotion-driven rumination. Symptoms of anxiety and depression also had significant independent effects on overall rumination and emotion-driven rumination. However, worry partially accounted for the associations of both depression and anxiety with rumination. Those with mood and anxiety disorders also reported more rumination than controls, an effect that was amplified by increased comorbidity. Those with mood disorders reported significantly more rumination than those with anxiety disorders. The implications of these findings for a transdiagnostic view of rumination are discussed.

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