Figure S1. Data extraction form.

Figure S2. Funnel plot comparing lnRR vs the SE of lnRR (A) and FEV1 improvement (▵FEV1) related to the SCS use vs the SE of ▵FEV1 (B) to evaluate the publication bias. Open circles represent trials included in the meta-analysis. The line in the center indicates the summary log RR and the summary ▵FEV1. The other lines represent the 95% CIs. There is no evidence of publication bias. RR, risk ratio; SE, standard error.

Figure S3. Subgroup analysis of the effect of SCS on treatment failure rate in AECOPD patient by different definition of treatment failure. D group: Death, intubation, RR = 0.60. R group: Relapse, hospitalization, readmission, intensification of drug therapy, withdrawal. RR = 0.58. M group: Mixed. RR = 0.59. N group: Not mentioned. RR = 0.52.

Figure S4. The effect of systemic corticosteroids on FEV1% predicted. The FEV1 improvement was 5.65%.

Figure S5. Sketch map of the data in some paper. Adapted from Deeks, JJ, Higgins, JPT, Altman, DG, Meta-analysis of change scores. In: Higgins JPT, Green S, editors. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions Version 5.0.1 (updated September 2008). The Cochrane Collaboration, 2008. Available from:

Table S1. The definition of COPD exacerbation.

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