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Keywords:

  • HIV;
  • non-HIV;
  • pneumocystis pneumonia;
  • predictors of survival

Abstract

Background and Aims

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia also known as pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an opportunistic respiratory infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients that may also develop in non-HIV immunocompromised persons. The aim of our study was to evaluate mortality predictors of PCP patients in a tertiary referral centre.

Methods

Fifty-one patients with symptomatic PCP were enrolled in the study. The patients had either HIV infection (n = 21) or other immunosuppressive conditions (n = 30). Baseline characteristics (e.g. age, sex and underlying disease) were retrieved. Kaplan–Meier analysis was employed to calculate survival. Comparisons were made by log-rank test. A multivariate analysis of factors influencing survival was carried out using the Cox regression model. Chi-squared test and Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test was applied as appropriate.

Results

The median survival time for the HIV group was >120 months compared with 3 months for the non-HIV group (P = 0.009). Three-month survival probability was also significantly greater in the HIV group compared with the non-HIV group (90% vs 41%, P = 0.002). In univariate log-rank test, intensive care unit (ICU) necessity, HIV negativity, age >50 years, haemoglobin <10g/dl, C-reactive protein >5 mg/dL and multiple comorbidities were significant negative predictors of survival. In the Cox regression model, ICU and HIV statuses turned out to be independent prognostic factors of survival.

Conclusion

PCP is a serious problem in non-HIV immunocompromised patients in whom survival outcomes are worse than those in HIV patients.