Authorship and contributorship
Risk factors for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: a review
Article first published online: 1 OCT 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd
The Clinical Respiratory Journal
Volume 8, Issue 1, pages 11–23, January 2014
How to Cite
Flor de Lima, B. and Tavares, M. (2014), Risk factors for extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis: a review. The Clinical Respiratory Journal, 8: 11–23. doi: 10.1111/crj.12044
Bárbara Flor de Lima conceived the study, participated in the collection of data and wrote the paper. Margarida Tavares participated in the design of the study and reviewed the manuscript. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors have stated explicitly that there are no conflicts of interest in connection with this article.
- Issue published online: 6 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 1 OCT 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 22 JUL 2013 06:48AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 9 JUL 2013
- Manuscript Received: 1 NOV 2012
- drug resistance;
- extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis;
- risk factors;
Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB) is emerging as a global public health problem. Its treatment is more expensive and difficult, and the outcomes much severe. The identification of risk factors for XDR-TB is of paramount importance to design effective TB control strategies.
To review published articles on risk factors for XDR-TB.
We identified 249 English articles on PubMed, and 182 were excluded by the abstract. The remaining articles were retrieved for full-text detailed evaluation by authors, and 27 relevant articles were selected for final review.
Some risk factors were consistently present, mainly previous TB treatment and its length. Other conditions often associated were immigration, alcoholism and HIV coinfection. Pre-XDR-TB points to an increased risk of XDR-TB.
The information regarding determinants of XDR-TB is relatively weak. However, special emphasis should be given to minimize the risks of TB retreatment to prevent the emergence of highly resistant TB.