Drs Yang and Qu contributed equally to the work.
Influenza pneumonia among adolescents and adults: a concurrent comparison between influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and A (H3N2) in the post-pandemic period
Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013
© 2013 The Authors. The Clinical Respiratory Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
The Clinical Respiratory Journal
Volume 8, Issue 2, pages 185–191, April 2014
How to Cite
Yang, S. Q., Qu, J. X., Wang, C., Yu, X. M., Liu, Y. M. and Cao, B. (2014), Influenza pneumonia among adolescents and adults: a concurrent comparison between influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and A (H3N2) in the post-pandemic period. The Clinical Respiratory Journal, 8: 185–191. doi: 10.1111/crj.12056
Authorship and contributorship
Chen Wang and Bin Cao designed the study. Xiao Min Yu and Ying Mei Liu collected data. Shu Qiao Yang and Jiu Xin Qu performed the study and wrote the paper.
This research was approved by institutional review board in Beijing Chao-Yang Hospital. All patients gave their informed consents.
Conflict of interest
This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant number 81070005/H0104, 81030032/H19 and 81271840) and by a grant from Beijing Science and Technology Project (grant number D101100049810002).
- Issue published online: 1 APR 2014
- Article first published online: 26 NOV 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 23 SEP 2013 07:47AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 10 SEP 2013
- Manuscript Revised: 29 JUN 2013
- Manuscript Received: 30 DEC 2012
- National Natural Science Foundation of China. Grant Numbers: 81070005/H0104, 81030032/H19, 81271840
- Beijing Science and Technology Project. Grant Number: D101100049810002
- influenza A (H1N1) pdm09;
- seasonal influenza A (H3N2)
Comparisons of the characteristics between the influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 and common seasonal influenza are important for both clinical management and epidemiological studies. However, the differences between pandemic and seasonal influenza during the post-pandemic period are poorly understood.
The aim of our research was to investigate clinical and immune response differences between patients with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia and seasonal influenza A (H3N2) pneumonia in the post-pandemic period.
During the first flu season in post-pandemic period, patients from Beijing Network for Adult Community-Acquired Pneumonia present A (H1N1) pdm09 or A (H3N2) influenza were compared concurrently in the aspects of clinical characteristics and inflammatory profile in acute phase.
Patients with A (H1N1) pdm09 influenza pneumonia showed a close mean age to A (H3N2) pneumonia (51 ± 20 vs 53 ± 16, mean ± standard deviation, years) but tended to have more underlying diseases (32.8% vs 10%, P = 0.036). Although clinical characteristics were similar, no statistical difference were found in pneumonia severity index (PSI) score or intensive care unit admission rate or mortality, patients in A (H1N1) pdm09 cohort present higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, lactase dehydrogenase (P = 0.006, 0.018, respectively) in blood and also longer duration of fever than A (H3N2) cohort. Levels of interleukin (IL)-10 and IL-12 (p70) were higher in A (H1N1) pdm09 cohort (P = 0.031, 0.047, respectively).
During the first post-pandemic flu season, patients with the A (H1N1) pdm09 pneumonia showed similar clinical characteristics but slightly higher disease severity and stronger systemic inflammatory response than A (H3N2) pneumonia.