Several studies found that renal transplant recipients with chronic kidney disease have untreated complications and do not attain recommended clinical targets. Using a before/after design with propensity score–matched controls, we evaluated whether an advanced practice nurse-led interprofessional collaborative chronic care approach could improve clinical outcomes for CKD transplant patients compared with a traditional physician-led model. The intervention included strategies for disease self-management, shared decision making, and healthcare system reorganization. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients attaining at least seven of nine targets as per published guidelines. A greater proportion of intervention patients achieved the outcome (68% vs. 10%; p = 0.0001) and had discussions about end-stage treatment options (88% vs. 13%; p = 0.0001) compared with controls. The intervention patients had significantly fewer emergency room visits (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.53; 95% CI 0.29–0.91; p = 0.02) and hospital admissions (IRR 0.34; 95% CI 0.16–0.68; p = 0.001) compared with the control patients. There were no significant differences found between the groups in systolic/diastolic blood pressure, carbon dioxide, hemoglobin, or phosphate parameters. An advanced practice nurse-led approach, based on the chronic care model, has the potential to improve clinical outcomes for renal transplant recipients and needs to be tested in a multicenter randomized controlled trial.