• ABO-incompatible;
  • calcineurin inhibitor minimization;
  • everolimus;
  • kidney transplantation;
  • mycophenolate mofetil



A recent report has demonstrated that as with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), everolimus is capable of inhibiting human B-lymphocyte function and activation including B-lymphocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and immunoglobulin production in vitro. Everolimus may therefore be used as an immunosuppressant in ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation.


A three-month pilot study was performed to examine the efficacy and safety of conversion of stable ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients from MMF with standard exposure calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) to everolimus with very low exposure CNIs. Sixteen recipients were enrolled in the study. The patients without acute rejection by graft biopsy were switched from MMF to everolimus with CNI minimization. At three months after conversion, graft biopsies were performed to check for acute rejection and C4d deposition.


Conversion to everolimus with CNI minimization for three months did not induce acute rejection and C4d deposition in all of the ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. A slight elevation of anti-A/B antibody titer occurred in our present study. Everolimus was associated with hyperlipidemia and edema.


These results demonstrated that short-term conversion from MMF to everolimus after one yr post-transplant may be a safe and effective alternate for ABO-incompatible kidney transplant recipients requiring temporary discontinuation of MMF.