Clinical research training programs exist across the country, but no quantitative studies have been performed to evaluate the effectiveness of these programs. The goal of this study was to evaluate the success of the clinical research training program at the University of Cincinnati by comparing the publication histories of pediatric fellows who graduated from the clinical and translational research Master of Science (MS) degree programs between 1995 and 2011 with fellows who did not pursue an MS degree. Among 296 pediatric fellows, 44 of 54 graduates (81%) published at least 1 first-authored paper, as compared with 149 of 242 (62%) fellows who did not obtain an MS degree (P < 0.01). In multivariable analysis, 3–4 years after program completion, MS graduates published more papers overall (R2 = 0.10) and more first-authored papers than did non-MS graduates (R2 = 0.04). These findings suggest that graduate training in clinical and translational research is related to an increase in research productivity as assessed by publication rates.