• 1
    Davis MM, Clark SJ, Butchart AT, Singer DC, Shanley TP, Gipson DS. Public participation in, and awareness about, medical research opportunities in the era of clinical and translational research. Clin Transl Sci. 2013; 6(2): 8893.
  • 2
    The Clinical Trials Enterprise in the United States: A Call for Disruptive Innovation – Institute of Medicine. Available at: Accessed January 31, 2013.
  • 3
    National Healthcare Disparities Report, 2011. April 2012. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD. Available at: Accessed May 22, 2013.
  • 4
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health Disparities and Inequalities Report—United States. MMWR. 2011; 60(Suppl):1116.
  • 5
    Mastroianni AC, Faden R, Federman D. Women and health research: a report from the Institute of Medicine. Kennedy Inst Ethic J. 1994; 4(1): 5562.
  • 6
    Corbie-Smith G, Thomas SB, Williams MV, Moody-Ayers S. Attitudes and beliefs of African Americans toward participation in medical research. J Gen Intern Med. 1999; 14(9): 537546.
  • 7
    Corbie-Smith G, Thomas SB, St George DMM. Distrust, race, and research. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162(21): 24582463.
  • 8
    Odulana A, Kim MM, Green M, Taylor Y, Howard DL, Godley P, Corbie-Smith G. Participating in research: attitudes within the African American Church. J Relig Health. 2012; Aug 11 [Epub ahead of print].
  • 9
    Durant RW, Davis RB, St George DMM, Williams IC, Blumenthal C, Corbie-Smith GM. Participation in research studies: factors associated with failing to meet minority recruitment goals. Ann Epidemiol. 2007; 17(8): 634642.
  • 10
    Roberson NL. Clinical trial participation. Viewpoints from racial/ethnic groups. Cancer. 1994; 74(9 Suppl): 26872691.
  • 11
    Payne JK, Hendrix CC. Clinical trial recruitment challenges with older adults with cancer. Appl Nurs Res. 2010; 23(4): 233237.
  • 12
    Zúñiga ML, Blanco E, Martínez P, Strathdee SA, Gifford AL. Perceptions of barriers and facilitators to participation in clinical trials in HIV-positive Latinas: a pilot study. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2007; 16(9): 13221330.
  • 13
    Sheppard VB, Cox LS, Kanamori MJ, Cañar J, Rodríguez Y, Goodman M, Pomeroy J, Mandelblatt J, Huerta EE; Latin American Cancer Research Coalition (LACRC). Brief report: if you build it, they will come: methods for recruiting Latinos into cancer research. J Gen Intern Med. 2005; 20(5): 444447.
  • 14
    Ford JG, Howerton MW, Lai GY, Gary TL, Bolen S, Gibbons MC, Tilburt J, Baffi C, Tanpitukpongse TP, Wilson RF, et al. Barriers to recruiting underrepresented populations to cancer clinical trials: a systematic review. Cancer. 2008; 112(2): 228242.
  • 15
    Heiat A, Gross CP, Krumholz HM. Representation of the elderly, women, and minorities in heart failure clinical trials. Arch Intern Med. 2002; 162(15): 16821688.
  • 16
    Murthy VH, Krumholz HM, Gross CP. Participation in cancer clinical trials: race-, sex-, and age-based disparities. JAMA. 2004; 291(22): 27202726.
  • 17
    Sengupta S, Strauss RP, DeVellis R, Quinn SC, DeVellis B, Ware WB. Factors affecting African-American participation in AIDS research. J Acq Immun Def Synd. 2000; 24(3): 275284.
  • 18
    Yancey AK, Ortega AN, Kumanyika SK. Effective recruitment and retention of minority research participants. Annu Rev Publ Health. 2006; 27:128.
  • 19
    Gwadz MV, Colon P, Ritchie AS, Leonard NR, Cleland CM, Riedel M, Bowens D, Banfield AD, Change P, Quiles R, et al. Increasing and supporting the participation of persons of color living with HIV/AIDS in AIDS clinical trials. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2010; 7(4): 194200.
  • 20
    Dennis J. Knowledge Panel Design Summary. 2011. Available at: Accessed February 4, 2013.
  • 21
    Dempsey AF, Singer D, Clark SJ, Davis MM. Parents’ views on 3 shot-related visits: implications for use of adolescent vaccines like human papillomavirus vaccine. Acad Pediatr. 2009; 9(5): 348352.
  • 22
    Woolford SJ, Clark SJ, Gebremariam A, Davis MM, Freed GL. To cut or not to cut: physicians’ perspectives on referring adolescents for bariatric surgery. Obes Surg. 2010; 20(7): 937942.
  • 23
    Tarini BA, Goldenberg A, Singer D, Clark SJ, Butchart A, Davis MM. Not without my permission: parents’ willingness to permit use of newborn screening samples for research. Public Health Genomics. 2010;13(3): 125130.
  • 24
    Macy ML, Clark SJ, Freed GL, Butchart AT, Singer DC, Sasson C, Meurer WJ, Davis MM. Carpooling and booster seats: a national survey of parents. Pediatrics. 2012; 129(2): 290298.
  • 25
    Eisenberg D, Freed GL, Davis MM, Singer D, Prosser LA. Valuing health at different ages: evidence from a nationally representative survey in the US. Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2011; 9(3): 149156.
  • 26
    Gul RB, Ali PA. Clinical trials: the challenge of recruitment and retention of participants. J Clin Nurs. 2010; 19(1–2): 227233.
  • 27
    Cottler LB, McCloskey DJ, Aguilar-Gaxiola S, Bennett NM, Strelnick H, Dwyer-White M, Collyar SA, Seifer SD, O'Leary CC, Striley CW, et al. Community needs, concerns, and perceptions about health research: findings from the clinical and translational science award sentinel network. Am J Public Health. 2013; 13(9): 16851692.
  • 28
    Braunstein JB, Sherber NS, Schulman SP, Ding EL, Powe NR. Race, medical researcher distrust, perceived harm, and willingness to participate in cardiovascular prevention trials. Medicine (Baltimore). 2008; 87(1): 19.
  • 29
    Brandt AM. Racism and research: the case of the Tuskegee syphilis study. Hastings Cent Rep. 1978; 8(6): 2129.
  • 30
    Katz RV, Green BL, Kressin NR, Kegeles SS, Wang MQ, James SA, Russell SL, Claudio C, McCallum JM. The legacy of the Tuskegee syphilis study: assessing its impact on willingness to participate in biomedical studies. J Health Care Poor U. 2008; 19(4): 11681180.
  • 31
    Dearing BA, Chhibber R, Katz RV. Trust in medical researchers and research findings by race/ethnicity. J Dent Res 2009 (Spec Iss A) Abstract #647.