These authors contributed equally to this work.
Verrucous hemangioma expresses primitive markers†
Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013
© 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Volume 40, Issue 4, pages 391–396, April 2013
How to Cite
Verrucous hemangioma expresses primitive markers†., , , , , , .
Aspects of this work were presented at the 19th International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies Workshop, June 16–19, 2012, Malmo, Sweden.
- Issue published online: 19 MAR 2013
- Article first published online: 4 FEB 2013
- Accepted manuscript online: 27 DEC 2012 08:20AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 16 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 7 DEC 2012
- Manuscript Received: 26 JUL 2012
- Deane Endowment Trust
- hemoglobin ζ chain;
- stem cells;
- verrucous hemangioma
Verrucous hemangioma (VH) presents clinically as a vascular malformation but has similar histopathologic features to infantile hemangioma. This study characterized the cell population within VH.
Material and methods
Paraffin-embedded sections from two male patients with VH were processed for immunohistochemistry. The expression of SMA, CD34, glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), D2-40, brachyury, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Oct-4, hemoglobin ζ chain (HBZ), Wilms tumor protein (WT-1) and CD45 was examined.
The lymphatic marker, D2-40, was not expressed in VH, whereas Glut-1 was widely expressed in infantile hemangioma, it was only focally expressed by the endothelium of VH. The endothelium of VH expressed the primitive markers, Oct-4, brachyury and ACE. The primitive marker, WT-1, was expressed predominantly on the pericyte layer of both VH and infantile hemangioma. However, HBZ was only expressed in infantile hemangioma. CD45, a mature hematopoetic marker, was expressed by cells within the interstitium, away from the endothelium of VH and infantile hemangioma.
The expression of the primitive markers, Oct-4, brachyury and ACE on the endothelium, and WT-1 predominantly on the pericyte layer of VH shows a primitive microvascular phenotype similar to infantile hemangioma. However, the absence of the embryonic marker, HBZ, expressed only in first trimester placenta and in proliferating infantile hemangioma, suggests a different cellular origin. HBZ could be used to distinguish between the two conditions.