Verrucous hemangioma expresses primitive markers

Authors

  • Emma L. Laing,

    1. Gillies McIndoe Research Institute, Wellington, New Zealand
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Helen D. Brasch,

    1. Gillies McIndoe Research Institute, Wellington, New Zealand
    2. Centre for the Study and Treatment of Vascular Birthmarks, Wellington Regional Plastic, Maxillofacial and Burns Unit, Hutt Hospital, Wellington, New Zealand
    3. Department of Pathology, Hutt Hospital, Wellington, New Zealand
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Ryan Steel,

    1. Gillies McIndoe Research Institute, Wellington, New Zealand
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Jun Jia,

    1. Gillies McIndoe Research Institute, Wellington, New Zealand
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Tinte Itinteang,

    1. Gillies McIndoe Research Institute, Wellington, New Zealand
    Search for more papers by this author
  • Swee T. Tan,

    Corresponding author
    1. Centre for the Study and Treatment of Vascular Birthmarks, Wellington Regional Plastic, Maxillofacial and Burns Unit, Hutt Hospital, Wellington, New Zealand
    2. University of Otago, Wellington, New Zealand
    • Gillies McIndoe Research Institute, Wellington, New Zealand
    Search for more papers by this author
    • These authors contributed equally to this work.

  • Darren J. Day

    1. School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand
    Search for more papers by this author
    • These authors contributed equally to this work.


  • Aspects of this work were presented at the 19th International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies Workshop, June 16–19, 2012, Malmo, Sweden.

Prof. Swee Thong Tan, ONZM MBBS FRACS PhD,

Gillies McIndoe Research Institute, PO Box 7184, Newtown 6242,

Wellington, New Zealand

Tel: +64 4 5872506

Fax: +64 4 5872510

e-mail: swee.tan@huttvalleydhb.org.nz

Abstract

Background

Verrucous hemangioma (VH) presents clinically as a vascular malformation but has similar histopathologic features to infantile hemangioma. This study characterized the cell population within VH.

Material and methods

Paraffin-embedded sections from two male patients with VH were processed for immunohistochemistry. The expression of SMA, CD34, glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1), D2-40, brachyury, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Oct-4, hemoglobin ζ chain (HBZ), Wilms tumor protein (WT-1) and CD45 was examined.

Results

The lymphatic marker, D2-40, was not expressed in VH, whereas Glut-1 was widely expressed in infantile hemangioma, it was only focally expressed by the endothelium of VH. The endothelium of VH expressed the primitive markers, Oct-4, brachyury and ACE. The primitive marker, WT-1, was expressed predominantly on the pericyte layer of both VH and infantile hemangioma. However, HBZ was only expressed in infantile hemangioma. CD45, a mature hematopoetic marker, was expressed by cells within the interstitium, away from the endothelium of VH and infantile hemangioma.

Discussion

The expression of the primitive markers, Oct-4, brachyury and ACE on the endothelium, and WT-1 predominantly on the pericyte layer of VH shows a primitive microvascular phenotype similar to infantile hemangioma. However, the absence of the embryonic marker, HBZ, expressed only in first trimester placenta and in proliferating infantile hemangioma, suggests a different cellular origin. HBZ could be used to distinguish between the two conditions.

Ancillary