Pedagogy within mathematics classrooms is of keen interest in any educational discussion. On a wider scale, pedagogical practice that produces desirable outcomes is considered a major instrument for achieving national objectives. Circumstance and setting may vary, but the question relating to how mathematics teachers construct their practice is as relevant in the contemporary environment as it has been in the past. That question lies at the heart of this review. The review will first reflect briefly on past understandings of pedagogy within mathematics education. It will then discuss more recent work focused of pedagogy and pedagogical change that draws on poststructuralist thinking. In keeping with a poststructuralist sensibility, within these discussions the notion of teachers’ identity as key to pedagogical practice will be a central organizing principle.