Alcohol and young people: What the legislation says about access and secondary supply

Authors


Ann M. Roche PhD, Professor, Director, Tania Steenson, Law Student, Project Officer, Rachel Andrew BPsy (Hons), Research Assistant. Correspondence to Professor Ann M. Roche, National Centre for Education and Training on Addiction, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide, SA 5001, Australia. Tel: +61 (08) 8201 7535; Fax: +61 (08) 8201 7550; E-mail: ann.roche@flinders.edu.au

Abstract

Issue

The rationale and potential impact of Australia's recent legislative changes regulating secondary supply of alcohol to minors, particularly on private premises.

Approach

An examination of similarities and differences between state and territory liquor licensing legislation regulating secondary supply of alcohol to minors was undertaken.

Key Findings

The Northern Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria prohibit supply of alcohol to minors on private premises, except by parents/guardians/authorised persons. Northern Territory, Queensland and Tasmanian legislation also prescribes that supply must occur responsibly and under supervision. Elsewhere, alcohol supply to minors on private premises is unregulated. These legislative changes reflect the ‘familialisation’ of adolescent drinking.

Implications

Recent legislative amendments regulating secondary supply on private premises may indicate growing awareness of adolescent alcohol-related harms and signal a shift in community norms. However, sociocultural factors, misunderstanding and challenges in enforcing the legislation may limit compliance.

Conclusions

Changes in secondary supply legislation need effective dissemination as divergence between states and territories may result in confusion about legal responsibilities. A national approach may be warranted to help set community boundaries for young people's drinking.

Introduction

Adolescent alcohol consumption is a source of increasing concern in a number of countries [1]. In Australia, alcohol plays a major role in the social lives of young people [2] and, despite being unable to purchase alcohol, by age 17 most adolescents have started to drink alcohol [3, 4]. Consumption generally occurs under parental surveillance in private homes, with adolescents aged 12–17 obtaining alcohol from a parent, relative or friends/peers [3, 4].

As Australia does not have a legislated minimum drinking age, alcohol supply and consumption on private premises has been unofficially regulated and influenced by social convention. Age of initiation, context, frequency, amount and type of alcohol consumed by adolescents is shaped by modifiable family, economic and environmental factors. The majority of adolescents either abstain or drink alcohol at a low risk level (59%), with a minority (20%) of 16- to 17-year-olds drinking riskily on a monthly basis [4].

Many parents view their adolescent's alcohol consumption as benign [2, 5-7] and a symbol of emerging autonomy [8]. However, increased awareness of harms associated with decreasing age of initiation and risky drinking behaviours [4, 9-18], media depictions of youth intoxication [19] and the inability to control who supplies adolescents with alcohol have also been sources of parental and community concern [11]. Consequently, there has been greater public support for raising the legal drinking age (41% in 2004 to 50% in 2010) [4], as well as lobbying for adults to exercise greater control over adolescent alcohol consumption [20]. Parental socialisation and community controls, including legislation, are increasingly recognised as important in assisting adolescents to learn to drink in a manner which minimises exposure to risk and conforms to community expectations [8, 21-23].

Until recently, legislation in most states and territories was narrowly focused with a minimum age only prescribed for possession, consumption and purchases of alcohol by minors on licensed premises and public places. The legislation did not address secondary supply or adolescent alcohol consumption on private premises. However, perceived failure of parents to set appropriate alcohol-specific boundaries, growing evidence of negative social, psychological and physiological consequences, antisocial behaviour of some adolescents in public spaces and increased availability of alcohol have resulted in the ‘familialisation’ of adolescent drinking and associated laws [24-26].

This paper examines the legislation in terms of how, where and when adolescents may access alcohol, with attention directed to the rationale underpinning statutory provisions regulating adolescent alcohol supply and consumption on private premises [27-33].

Method

A three-step process was used to examine the relevant legislation. First, a comprehensive review of liquor licensing legislation and related regulations was undertaken for every jurisdiction in Australia as at 31 December 2011. The Australasian Legal Information Institute (AustLII) database and individual jurisdiction's liquor licensing authority and government websites were searched for legislation and parliamentary speeches (2000 to 2011) pertaining to adolescent alcohol supply. Key words/phrases in parliamentary speeches informed a literature search to identify laws with analogous theoretical bases. Search terms included adolescent, teenager, alcohol, secondary supply, parental responsibility, regulat* and famil*. Analyses of these legislative changes were conducted in light of cultural contexts and theories concerned with familialisation, postmodern trends in law-making, social structures and friendship groups, and the role of parents in society.

Results

Data are presented in regard to the supply of alcohol to people under the age of 18 (minors) in Australian jurisdictions on: (i) licensed premises; (ii) public places; and (iii) private premises.

Licensed premises

All Australian jurisdictions contain statutory provisions regulating minors accessing and consuming alcohol on licensed premises (Table 1) with a high level of uniformity. All jurisdictions prohibit minors purchasing, consuming and/or possessing alcohol, and people selling or supplying alcohol to minors on licensed premises.

Table 1. Australian jurisdictions' legislative provisions regarding the sale, supply to and consumption of alcohol by minors on licensed premises
OffencesACTNSWNTQLDSATASVICWA
Liquor Act 2010Liquor Act 2007Liquor ActLiquor Act 1992Liquor Licensing Act 1997Liquor Licensing Act 1990Liquor Control Reform Act 1998Liquor Control Act 1988
  1. In each cell of the table where ‘Yes’ appears, the corresponding Section of the legislation is listed. aThe term permitted premises refers to premises that are the subject of a permit, as opposed to the subject of a licence. bSection 114 relates to regulated premises. Regulated premises include licensed premises, as well as a host of other premises either expressly nominated in the Liquor Licensing Act 1997 (SA) or declared by regulation to be regulated premises. cThe offence of allowing or permitting the sale or supply of liquor to people under the age of 18 years is not applicable to some states. Allow means to expressly give permission for or to ‘negligently permit’ the prohibited event to occur [Ferrior v Wilson (1906) 4 CLR 785; Potts v Knox (1907) 24 WN (NSW) 91]. Negligently permitting includes ‘the absence of such reasonable care as ought to be used in such circumstances’ to prevent the offence from occurring [Ferrier v Wilson (1906) 4 CLR 785, 790, 796]. Licensees are not liable for the acts of everyone who breaches this legislative provision, nor are they responsible for every possible contingency that may occur. Licensees are, however, liable for the acts of ‘some person whose action is within the scope of [their] authority’ [Ferrior v Wilson (1906) 4 CLR 785]. The licensee's liability is contingent upon the amount and specificity of instructions and power afforded the delegate and whether these instructions and powers would be effective in preventing the act from occurring [Gilbert v Gulliver (1918) VLR 185]. As such, in determining whether a licensee is responsible for the actions of their staff, it is relevant to consider how much responsibility they have delegated and how much discretion the staff have in following the licensee's instructions. Jurisdictions which do not contain this offence have other legislated enactments providing that the licensee/permit-holder is responsible for the supply/sale of liquor to minors by their staff. For example, see Liquor Act 2010 (ACT), ss 110(3),(4); Liquor Licensing Act 1990 (TAS), s 70(2). dThe Liquor Act 2010 (ACT) also confers liability on licensees/permit-holders for the consumption and possession of liquor by young people on their premises. See sections 114 and 116. eIn New South Wales, section 120 of the Liquor Act 2007 (NSW) also provides that a responsible adult must not allow a minor to consume alcohol on licensed premises. fIn South Australia, a licensee is guilty of an offence if they ‘permit’ a minor to consume liquor on licensed premises. gSection 156 (2) of the Liquor Act 1992 (QLD) provides ‘A person must not, on a street or place adjacent to premises to which a licence or permit relates, or in a public place supply liquor, or cause or permit liquor to be supplied, to a minor.’ Causing or permitting liquor to be supplied would cover a wide variety of activities and behaviours, of which obtaining would be one. ACT, Australian Capital Territory; NSW, New South Wales; NT, Northern Territory; QLD, Queensland; SA, South Australia; TAS, Tasmania; VIC, Victoria; WA, Western Australia.
It is an offence to supply/sell liquor to a person under 18 years by a licensee/permit holder or employee on licensed/permitteda premisesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
s 110ss 117(1–2)s 106CAss 155A & 156s 110(1)s 71ss 119(1),(2),(4)s 121(1)
It is an offence for other adults to supply/sell alcohol to a person under 18 years on licensed premisesYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
112ss 117(1–2) & 120s 106CAss 155A & 156ss 110 & 114(2)bs 71s 119(3)s 121(1)
… except if the minor is in the company of a parent, guardian or spouse, and the liquor is sold ancillary to a meal supplied on premisesN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AN/AYesN/A
S119 (5)
It is an offence to allow the selling or supply of liquor to persons under 18 years on licensed premisescN/AYesYesYesYesN/AYesYes
ss 110(3),(4)ds 117(8)es 106CAs 156s 110(2)fs 70(2)s 119(1)s 121(1),(2)
It is an offence to obtain liquor from a licensed premises for a person under 18 years (unless by a parent/guardian, and/or authorised by the parent/guardian)NoYesNoYesYesNoNoYes
s 117(6)s 156(2)gs 110(4)s 121(3)
It is an offence to send a minor to a licensed/permitted premises to be supplied with alcoholYesYesYesYesNoYesYesYes
s 119s 118(2)s 118s 156(3)s 74s 121s 124

Exceptions exist in some jurisdictions. Legislation in New South Wales, South Australia and Western Australia prohibits adults from obtaining alcohol from licensed premises for minors unless they are a parent, guardian or a person authorised by a parent or guardian. In Victoria, liquor can be supplied on licensed premises if it is supplied with a meal, and the young person is with a parent, guardian or adult spouse.

Public places

People are also prohibited from supplying minors with liquor in public places in all jurisdictions (Table 2). While in most jurisdictions the legislative provision expressly provides that the offence only applies to supply which occurs in public places, in New South Wales and Victoria the statutory clauses are of a general nature; that is, they may apply to the offence of supplying a minor with liquor regardless of where the supply occurs. However, both these states also limit the operation of the statutory provision. In New South Wales the provision excludes supply on licensed premises as there is another clause which covers supply under those circumstances. In Victoria, supply which occurs on private premises is excluded as long as the supply is consistent with the statutory provisions discussed below.

Table 2. Offences for supply to, possession and consumption of alcohol by minors in a public place
OffencesACTNSWNTQLDSATASVICWA
Liquor Act 2010Liquor Act 2007Liquor ActLiquor Act 1992Liquor Licensing Act 1997Liquor Licensing Act 1990Liquor Control Reform Act 1998Liquor Control Act 1988
  1. In each cell of the table where ‘Yes’ appears, the corresponding Section of the relevant legislation is listed. aIn the Liquor Control Reform Act 1998 (VIC), section 119 (3) provides that a person must not supply liquor to a minor. While it may be assumed that parliament by its silence intended the clause to apply everywhere, except private premises (as indicated by subsection 5), because of the ambiguity of the clause this would be a matter of statutory construction for a court to determine. bThis section applies if liquor is sold or supplied to a minor on regulated premises or if consumption by a minor is permitted on regulated premises. Regulated premises are specified in the Act. However, for the purposes of selling, supplying, purchasing or obtaining, regulated premises ‘also include any road open to or used by the public, including any footpath or reservation adjoining the road, and vehicle on or adjacent to the road’ [see Liquor Control Act 1988 (WA), section 122 (1)(g)]. cIn the ACT, the possession and consumption of liquor is prohibited in certain public places [see Liquor Act 2010 (ACT), sections 199–200]. Further to this, in the ACT and NSW, public areas may be declared alcohol-free zones by the Commissioner for Fair Trading (ACT) and local councils (NSW) [see Liquor Act 2010 (ACT), section 198; Local Government Act 1993 (NSW), section 644B]. In the Northern Territory, there are a range of classifications which may be applied to public areas [see Liquor Act (NT), sections 73–101s]. In South Australia, public places where alcohol restrictions apply are proclaimed in the regulations. dIn Victoria, while it is not an offence to consume liquor in a public place, it is an offence to be drunk in a public place [see Summary Offences Act 1966 (VIC), section 13]. ACT, Australian Capital Territory; NSW, New South Wales; NT, Northern Territory; QLD, Queensland; SA, South Australia; TAS, Tasmania; VIC, Victoria; WA, Western Australia.
An offence to supply liquor to a person under 18 years at a public placeYesYesYesYesYesYesYesaYesb
s 204s 117(4)Summary Offences Act s 45Ks 156(2)s 117(2)Police Offences Act 1935 s 13 (2A)s 119s 122(2)
An offence for minors to possess and/or consume liquor in a public placeYesYesYesYesYesYesNoYes
S205–206Summary Offences Act 1988 s 11Summary Offences Act s 45Ks 157S117Police Offences Act 1935 s 13 (2B),(2C)s 123
… unless in the company of a parent, guardian, spouse, responsible adultN/AYesYesYesYesN/AN/AN/A
Summary Offences Act 1988 s 11Summary Offences Act s 45Ks 157(2)s 117
An offence for anyone to consume alcohol in a public place where alcohol restrictions applycNoNoYesYesYesYesNodYes
Summary Offences Act s 45Ds 173Bs 131Police Offences Act 1953 s 25s 119

Minors commit an offence if they possess and/or consume alcohol in a public place in all jurisdictions, except Victoria. In the Northern Territory, New South Wales, Queensland and South Australia, an offence is not committed if the minor is with a parent, spouse or responsible adult.

Private premises

Considerable variability exists among Australian jurisdictions' legislation regarding the supply of alcohol to minors on private property (Table 3). Adolescent alcohol supply in a private place is legislated in New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria. While in the Australian Capital Territory, South Australia and Western Australia, it continues to be unlegislated.

Table 3. Australian jurisdictions' legislative provisions regarding the supply to, and consumption of alcohol by minors on private premises
OffencesACTNSWNTQLDSATASVICWA
Liquor Act 2010Liquor Act 2007Liquor ActLiquor Act 1992Liquor Licensing Act 1997Liquor Licensing Act 1990Liquor Control Reform Act 1998Liquor Control Act 1988
  1. In each cell of the table where ‘Yes’ appears, the corresponding Section of the relevant legislation is listed. ACT, Australian Capital Territory; NSW, New South Wales; NT, Northern Territory; QLD, Queensland; SA, South Australia; TAS, Tasmania; VIC, Victoria; WA, Western Australia.
An offence for a person (other than parent/guardian responsible for person) to supply liquor to a person under 18 years on private premisesNoYesYesYesNoYesYesNo
s 117(4)s 106Cs 156A(1)

Police Offences Act 1935

s 26(1)

s 119 (5e)
An offence to not responsibly supervise a minor for whom the adult is responsible and has supplied liquor toNoNoYesYesNoYesNoNo
s 106Cs 156A(2)

Police Offences Act 1935

s 26(2)

In New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria minors are only allowed to be supplied alcohol on private premises by:

  • Parents/guardians or responsible persons/adults.
  • People authorised by the parent/guardian.
  • People who have parental rights and responsibilities for the minor (Table 3).

The Northern Territory, Queensland and Tasmania have also enacted legislative provisions requiring parents or authorised people to ‘responsibly supervise’ adolescents, and ensure alcohol is supplied in a manner consistent with the responsible use of alcohol [28-32]. There is no determinative understanding of what constitutes ‘responsible supervision’. Legal deliberations are based upon the adjudicating of several factors, including: whether the adult and minor are ‘drunk’ (Northern Territory), ‘intoxicated’ (Tasmania) or ‘unduly intoxicated’ (Queensland), the age of the minor, whether the adult is ‘directly’ (Tasmania) or ‘responsibly’ (Northern Territory and Queensland) supervising the minor's consumption of alcohol, whether food is provided for minors to consume, the quantity and type of liquor consumed and the period of time over which it is consumed.

Discussion

Historically, Australian state and territory liquor laws regulating alcohol supply to minors were very similar. Minors are statutorily defined as people under the age of 18, and are excluded from purchasing, drinking and possessing alcohol in, and attending some licensed premises, with most jurisdictions also prohibiting minors from possessing and consuming alcohol in public places. Those who possess, supply or consume alcohol in contravention of these statutory provisions are subject to a range of administrative and criminal penalties, and the provisions are enforced through various state agencies, including police and liquor licensing authorities, and commercial entities (e.g. licensees and staff). Minors are not, however, prohibited from possessing and drinking alcohol on private or unregulated premises and no Australian jurisdiction has a defined statutory age for when adolescents can start drinking in these locations.

Despite these similarities, laws recently implemented in the Northern Territory, New South Wales, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria have introduced considerable divergence among Australia's jurisdictions regarding adolescent alcohol supply on private premises. Laws regulating adolescent alcohol consumption on private property may signal changes in overall community attitudes, including: (i) less tolerance of problematic youth drinking, particularly when it negatively impacts others [19]; (ii) greater empowerment and support for the role played by parents in young people's alcohol-specific socialisation [5-7, 22, 23, 33, 34]; (iii) acceptance of the view that adolescents lack an ability to self-regulate, thus assigning moral and social responsibility to control adolescent alcohol consumption to others [35]; and (iv) greater support for National Health and Medical Research Council guidelines that advise the safest option for people under 15 years of age is to abstain and for 15- to 17-year-olds to delay drinking as long as possible [36].

These laws also reflect the ‘familialisation’ of adolescent drinking and are indicative of the growing influence of a modern welfarist approach to governing children [25, 26]. They attribute responsibility to parents for adolescent alcohol-related socialisation, define the standards required for parents and authorised others to exercise control over adolescent alcohol consumption, and implement a regime of punishment for those who fail to meet indeterminate community expectations. However, familialisation laws often overlook adolescent autonomy, peer relations and the bidirectionality of family interactions in the pursuit of broader social goals [8, 25, 26] and are analogous with parental responsibility laws. Such laws reflect a postmodern trend in law-making which casts children as vulnerable, deviant and lacking in control, and extends the power of state agencies, and threatens parents with criminal prosecution if they fail to control their child [24-26, 37].

While critics of parental responsibility laws argue the symbolic nature of such statutes is evidenced by lack of enforcement, oscillating public support and non-compliance [38], familialisation laws are often effective because they are initiated by experts with authoritative claims based on scientific evidence. Moreover, parents aspire to achieve a constructed social ideal [25, 26, 39], motivated not ‘through images of threat’ but through a belief that parents should ‘work as [the] private, voluntary and responsible agency for the rearing and moralising of children and promoting their physical and mental welfare’ [25].

Divergence from the constructed ideal and the reality of adolescent alcohol consumption makes compliance a challenging task. There are also concerns that well-intentioned parents and young people may be inappropriately penalised. While such concerns may be counteracted through application of minor penalties, lack of knowledge of the legislation, as well as misinterpretation of legislated risk management strategies, warrants attention, including greater dissemination. The application of secondary supply provisions needs to be sufficiently clear for all members of the community to comprehend, comply with and enforce. Research is required to determine whether legislative changes will result in altered alcohol-related socialisation by parents, compliance by adolescents and others, and enforcement by the state [38].

Parents

Parents are a primary source of alcohol for adolescents [3] and may provide specific quantities of alcohol as a harm minimisation strategy [34]. This practice reflected Australia's ‘alcohol guidelines’ for youth (superceded in 2009) which counselled for initiation to occur in a gradual, supervised fashion [40]. While adolescents report drinking less when alcohol is obtained from parents and consumed at home [3], parental supply has also been linked with increased use, drunkenness and heavy episodic use [41], and any potentially protective effects of this approach are negated when minors consume more than five alcoholic drinks in a single session (i.e. risky drinking) [42]. As adolescents also consume more alcohol at people's homes other than their own [43], the offences recently created in New South Wales, the Northern Territory, Queensland, Tasmania and Victoria that codify the primacy of the parental role over adolescent alcohol use may be beneficial. However, adolescent drinking is dynamic and parental influence often decreases and tolerance increases once an adolescent starts to drink [8].

Nonetheless, ensuring that adolescent alcohol consumption is supervised by parents is important as studies have demonstrated that supervised teenagers drank at lower levels and were less likely to experience alcohol-related harm than unsupervised teenage drinkers [44, 45]. As the majority (59%) of 12- to 17-year-olds report that their last alcoholic beverage was consumed under adult supervision [3, 4], the legislated ‘responsible supervision’ provisions reflect existing risk management strategies used by parents [46]. Therefore, whether parental supervision will be enhanced and the harms associated with adolescent alcohol consumption reduced as a result of the legislative changes merits further investigation.

Law enforcement officers have also noted potential challenges in enforcing secondary supply laws [47]. Difficulties in proving the offence arise from its occurrence on private property, the relationship between supplier and minor, lack of corroborating testimony, and increased enforcement resources needed [47]. Additionally, in households where alcohol is readily available, secondary supply laws may have limited impact as children may be more likely to take alcohol without their parent's consent [48]. In these situations, the legal obligation to ‘responsibly supervise’ adolescent alcohol consumption is unlikely to arise. Therefore, it is foreseeable that the state may only seek to enforce these laws arbitrarily when the drinking activities of minors place them at harm, involve antisocial behaviour or the status of the family subjects them to greater surveillance by state agencies. Familialisation laws tend to penalise families rather than support them in their interactions with welfare agencies [39], and may differentially impact lower-income, single parent and Indigenous families because of their greater visibility and increased involvement with and reliance upon welfare organisations [49-51].

Social structures and friendship groups

Whether the new legislative provisions give parents greater control over adolescent alcohol consumption also needs to be considered in the context of how adolescents view the legitimacy of such control and how they currently access and consume alcohol in the absence of parental consent. Such contextualisation is important as these laws are predicated on perceptions of adolescents as passive receptors of the law, and that friends/peers who supply alcohol to minors will comply with laws because they fear legal and/or social sanctions [52, 53]. However, compliance theory suggests that motivations to obey laws are fluid and impacted by multiple individual and situational factors. Such factors include an individual's material and emotional/hedonic goals, as well as an assessment of the behaviour considered appropriate in a given circumstance [54]. For young people, the cultural drivers underpinning alcohol consumption, motivation to belong and participate as autonomous individuals within social spaces, acceptance by peers and achieving their desired social identity may be more salient than the legal sanctions attached to these statutory provisions.

Young people consume alcohol in a cultural context where ‘decisions around alcohol are inherently intertwined with choices around strategies to belong’ [55]. They make deliberate decisions and construct their social and drinking identities with only limited regard for the externalised setting of the law. As such, laws drafted with the intention of protecting children (e.g. age of consent laws) are often unsuccessful at preventing adolescents from engaging in prohibited behaviours [56]; that is: ‘teenagers are not … pawns … They are players who participate in the contest, sometimes resisting law and sometimes conforming to it’ [56].

Asserting control over personal issues is fundamental to healthy adolescent development [57]. In this regard, compliance with secondary supply laws within peer groups may be limited by the use of alcohol as a vehicle for transgressing acceptable social norms [54, 55], and a rejection of the view that young group members lack autonomy to pursue pleasure through the consumption of alcohol. As demonstrated through the enforcement of child sex offences, such laws may operate to attach criminal liability for a young person's drinking decisions to their ‘adult’ friends and peers [24, 56]. Moreover, if adolescents are unable to exert their autonomy and drink alcohol with friends in the absence of parental approval and/or external controls, they may seek to consume alcohol in circumstances which expose them to greater risk and potential criminal prosecution. Such potential outcomes need to be considered in the context of adolescent autonomy and differing perceptions of alcohol consumption as a moral versus a legal issue [58].

Conclusion

Notwithstanding evidence of harms from youth alcohol consumption, secondary supply laws do not prohibit adolescent drinking. Rather, they assign control and responsibility to parents to socialise teenage drinking according to idealised community values. Correspondingly, parenting norms are shaped by conveying messages about acceptable parenting practices [25, 26, 38, 39, 56]. While such laws may reflect current medical evidence and be well-intentioned, they are largely inconsistent with other areas of law where parental authority contracts in relation to adolescents' increased psychological and behavioural autonomy [57, 59]. There is an inherent tension in laws which reduce adolescent autonomy and responsibility for alcohol-related decision-making, while simultaneously holding them criminally liable for other offences contained in liquor legislation [24, 60].

The recent legislative changes have also introduced significant discrepancies between jurisdictions. Lack of consistent legislative frameworks, as currently exist in Australia, has been highlighted by the World Health Organization as a major impediment to achieving public health-related goals in relation to alcohol [1]. Nonetheless, these recent legislative changes, together with interventions demonstrated to be effective in reducing alcohol-related harm (e.g. price controls, exposure to marketing, brief interventions), are intended to complement other social, environmental and cultural factors which shape the drinking behaviours of young people [27, 61-67]. Harmonisation of secondary supply laws across Australia may be needed to ensure there is a single voice that reflects community norms and aids compliance and enforcement. There is scope for the three jurisdictions where secondary supply legislation is not currently enacted to change in the future. This would align the legislation in those jurisdictions with those where significant legislative change regarding secondary supply has already been introduced.

While these legislative changes complement existing restrictions placed on commercial suppliers of alcohol, to date the effectiveness of secondary supply and parental responsibility legislation is yet to be evaluated [27]. Future research is required to address the extent to which these legislative changes have brought about desired behaviour change, and to examine whether there may be any untoward consequences of making previously unregulated behaviours illegal.

Ancillary