• smoking;
  • environmental tobacco smoke;
  • Aboriginal;
  • Australia;
  • remote community


Introduction and Aims

In Arnhem Land's remote Aboriginal communities [Northern Territory], very high smoking rates and overcrowding mean high exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke. This study compared smokers who restrict their smoking in these environments with those who do not.

Design and Methods

In 2008–2009, 258 smokers (137 males and 121 females) aged ≥ 16 years, provided information permitting categorisation of those who ‘RESTRICT’ their smoking in the house, car or workplace from those who do ‘NOT RESTRICT’. Univariable and multivariable logistic regressions compared ‘RESTRICT’ and ‘NOT RESTRICT’ groups by gender, age group, daily use, tobacco consumption, time-to-first-cigarette and quit intentions. Those in the ‘RESTRICT’ group explained their motivations, summarised using qualitative data analysis.


Men were almost twice as likely to ‘NOT RESTRICT’ their smoking (odds ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval = 1.14–3.08, P = 0.013). Time-to-first-cigarette was the strongest predictor to ‘NOT RESTRICT’ in women (odds ratio = 3.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.44–8.41, P = 0.006) with daily consumption the strongest predictor in men (odds ratio = 3.15, 95% confidence interval = 1.39–7.18, P = 0.006). Men and women shared similar motivations for restricting smoking.

Discussion and Conclusions

Smoke-free homes and workplaces are important opportunities to reduce exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke in remote Indigenous communities. [Stevenson, LC, Bohanna I, Robertson, JA, Clough, AR. Aboriginal people in remote communities in Arnhem Land (Northern Territory) restrict their smoking in some environments: implications for developing and implementing interventions to reduce exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Drug Alcohol Rev 2013;32:627–630]