Rachael A. Korcha MA, Korcha-Associate Scientist, Cheryl J. Cherpitel PhD, Senior Scientist, Jane Witbrodt, PhD, Associate Scientist, Guilherme Borges PhD, ScD, Senior Researcher and Professor, Shahrzad Hejazi-Bazargan PhD, Chair and Professor, Jason C. Bond PhD, Senior Biostatistician, Yu Ye MA, Biostatistician, Gerhard Gmel PhD, Senior Scientist.
Violence-related injury and gender: The role of alcohol and alcohol combined with illicit drugs
Article first published online: 21 NOV 2013
© 2013 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs
Drug and Alcohol Review
Volume 33, Issue 1, pages 43–50, January 2014
How to Cite
Korcha, R. A., Cherpitel, C. J., Witbrodt, J., Borges, G., Hejazi-Bazargan, S., Bond, J. C., Ye, Y. and Gmel, G. (2014), Violence-related injury and gender: The role of alcohol and alcohol combined with illicit drugs. Drug and Alcohol Review, 33: 43–50. doi: 10.1111/dar.12087
- Issue published online: 9 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 21 NOV 2013
- Manuscript Received: 26 FEB 2013
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 OCT 2004
- US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Grant Number: RO1 AA013750
- emergency department;
- alcohol and illicit drug use;
- violence-related injury;
- gender differences
Introduction and Aims
The positive relationship between alcohol use, gender and violence-related injury is well established. However, less is known about injuries when alcohol is used in combination with other drugs.
Design and Methods
Self-report information was collected on alcohol and illicit drug use in the 6 h before a violence-related injury in probability samples of patients presenting to emergency departments (n = 9686).
Patients with violence-related injuries reported the highest rates of alcohol use (49% of men; 23% of women) and alcohol use combined with illicit drugs (8% of men; 4% of women) whereas non-violent injury patients reported lower rates of alcohol use (17% of men; 8% of women) and alcohol use combined with drugs (2% for men; 1% for women). Marijuana/hashish was the most commonly reported drug. The odds of a violent injury were increased when alcohol was used [men: odds ratio (OR) = 5.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.6–6.3; women: OR = 4.0, 95% CI 3.0–5.5] or when alcohol was combined with illicit drug use before the injury (men: OR = 6.6, 95% CI 4.7–9.3; women: OR = 5.7, 95% CI = 2.7–12.2) compared with non-users. No significant change in the odds of a violent injury was observed for men or women when alcohol users were compared with alcohol and drug users.
Discussion and Conclusions
The positive association between alcohol and violent injury does not appear to be altered by the added use of drugs. Additional work is needed to understand the interpersonal, contextual and cultural factors related to substance use to identify best prevention practices and develop appropriate policies. [Korcha RA, Cherpitel CJ, Witbrodt J, Borges G, Hejazi-Bazargan S, Bond JC, Ye Y, Gmel G. Violence-related injury and gender: The role of alcohol and alcohol combined with illicit drugs. Drug Alcohol Rev 2014;33:43–50]