• 1
    Assaf C, Gellrich S, Steinhoff M et al. Cutaneous lymphomas in Germany: an analysis of the Central Cutaneous Lymphoma Registry of the German Society of Dermatology (DDG). J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2007; 5: 6628.
  • 2
    Willemze R, Jaffe ES, Burg G et al. WHO-EORTC classification for cutaneous lymphomas. Blood 2005; 105: 376885.
  • 3
    Stadler R, Assaf C, Klemke CD et al. Brief S2k guidelines – Cutaneous lymphomas. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2013; 11 Suppl 3: 1928, 20–30.
  • 4
    Klemke CD. Cutaneous lymphomas. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2014; 12: 728; quiz 29–30.
  • 5
    Quaglino P, Pimpinelli N, Berti E et al. Time course, clinical pathways, and long-term hazards risk trends of disease progression in patients with classic mycosis fungoides: a multicenter, retrospective follow-up study from the Italian Group of Cutaneous Lymphomas. Cancer 2012; 118: 58309.
  • 6
    Magro CM, Dyrsen ME. Cutaneous lymphocyte antigen expression in benign and neoplastic cutaneous B- and T-cell lymphoid infiltrates. J Cutan Pathol 2008; 35: 10409.
  • 7
    Booken N, Gratchev A, Utikal J et al. Sezary syndrome is a unique cutaneous T-cell lymphoma as identified by an expanded gene signature including diagnostic marker molecules CDO1 and DNM3. Leukemia 2008; 22: 3939.
  • 8
    Campbell JJ, Clark RA, Watanabe R, Kupper TS. Sezary syndrome and mycosis fungoides arise from distinct T-cell subsets: a biologic rationale for their distinct clinical behaviors. Blood 2010; 116: 76771.
  • 9
    Tang N, Gibson H, Germeroth T et al. T-plastin (PLS3) gene expression differentiates Sezary syndrome from mycosis fungoides and inflammatory skin diseases and can serve as a biomarker to monitor disease progression. Br J Dermatol 2010; 162: 4636.
  • 10
    van Doorn R, vanKester MS, Dijkman R et al. Oncogenomic analysis of mycosis fungoides reveals major differences with Sezary syndrome. Blood 2009; 113: 12736.
  • 11
    Vermeer MH, vanDoorn R, Dijkman R et al. Novel and highly recurrent chromosomal alterations in Sezary syndrome. Cancer Res 2008; 68: 268998.
  • 12
    Jawed SI, Myskowski PL, Horwitz S et al. Primary cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome): part II. Prognosis, management, and future directions. J Am Acad Dermatol 2014; 70: 223.e1–17; quiz 240–2.
  • 13
    Kaye FJ, Bunn PA Jr, Steinberg SM et al. A randomized trial comparing combination electron-beam radiation and chemotherapy with topical therapy in the initial treatment of mycosis fungoides. N Engl J Med 1989; 321: 178490.
  • 14
    Duarte RF, Canals C, Onida F et al. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for patients with mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome: a retrospective analysis of the Lymphoma Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 449299.
  • 15
    Barnes PJ, Karin M. Nuclear factor-kappaB: a pivotal transcription factor in chronic inflammatory diseases. N Engl J Med 1997; 336: 106671.
  • 16
    Pitzalis C, Pipitone N, Perretti M. Regulation of leukocyte-endothelial interactions by glucocorticoids. Ann N Y Acad Sci 2002; 966: 10818.
  • 17
    Schwartzman RA, Cidlowski JA. Glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of lymphoid cells. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 1994; 105: 34754.
  • 18
    Hoppe RT, Abel EA, Deneau DG, Price NM. Mycosis fungoides: management with topical nitrogen mustard. J Clin Oncol 1987; 5: 1796803.
  • 19
    Kim YH, Martinez G, Varghese A, Hoppe RT. Topical nitrogen mustard in the management of mycosis fungoides: update of the Stanford experience. Arch Dermatol 2003; 139: 16573.
  • 20
    Lessin SR, Duvic M, Guitart J et al. Topical chemotherapy in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: positive results of a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial testing the efficacy and safety of a novel mechlorethamine, 0.02 %, gel in mycosis fungoides. JAMA Dermatol 2013; 149: 2532.
  • 21
    Lindahl LM, Fenger-Gron M, Iversen L. Topical nitrogen mustard therapy in patients with mycosis fungoides or parapsoriasis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2013; 27: 1638.
  • 22
    Lindahl LM, Fenger-Gron M, Iversen L. Secondary cancers, comorbidities and mortality associated with nitrogen mustard therapy in patients with mycosis fungoides: a 30-year population-based cohort study. Br J Dermatol 2014; 170: 699704.
  • 23
    Breneman D, Duvic M, Kuzel T et al. Phase 1 and 2 trial of bexarotene gel for skin-directed treatment of patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Arch Dermatol 2002; 138: 32532.
  • 24
    Bassiri-Tehrani SBA, Cohen DE. Treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma with alitretinoin gel. Int J Dermatol 2002; 41: 1046.
  • 25
    Farkas A, Kemeny L, French LE, Dummer R. New and experimental skin-directed therapies for cutaneous lymphomas. Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2009; 22: 32234.
  • 26
    Wozel G. Carmustin (Bischloroethyl- nitrosourea, BCNU). In: Szeimies R: Tumoren der Haut: Grundlagen, Diagnostik und Therapie in der Dermatologischen Onkologie. Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 2010; 199.
  • 27
    Herrmann JJ, Roenigk HH Jr, Hurria A et al. Treatment of mycosis fungoides with photochemotherapy (PUVA): long-term follow-up. J Am Acad Dermatol 1995; 33: 23442.
  • 28
    Oguz O, Engin B, Aydemir EH. The influence of psoralen + ultraviolet A treatment on the duration of remission and prognosis in mycosis fungoides. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2003; 17: 483-.
  • 29
    Querfeld C, Rosen ST, Kuzel TM et al. Long-term follow-up of patients with early-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma who achieved complete remission with psoralen plus UV-A monotherapy. Arch Dermatol 2005; 141: 30511.
  • 30
    Micaily B, Miyamoto C, Kantor G et al. Radiotherapy for unilesional mycosis fungoides. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998; 42: 3614.
  • 31
    Neelis KJ, Schimmel EC, Vermeer MH et al. Low-dose palliative radiotherapy for cutaneous B- and T-cell lymphomas. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2009; 74: 1548.
  • 32
    Wilson LD, Kacinski BM, Jones GW. Local superficial radiotherapy in the management of minimal stage IA cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (Mycosis Fungoides). Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 1998; 40: 10915.
  • 33
    Thomas TO, Agrawal P, Guitart J et al. Outcome of patients treated with a single-fraction dose of palliative radiation for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2013; 85: 74753.
  • 34
    Akilov OE, Grant C, Frye R et al. Low-dose electron beam radiation and romidepsin therapy for symptomatic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma lesions. Br J Dermatol 2012; 167: 1947.
  • 35
    Camphausen K, Tofilon PJ. Inhibition of histone deacetylation: a strategy for tumor radiosensitization. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25: 40516.
  • 36
    Parida DK, Verma KK, Rath GK. Total skin electron irradiation treatment for mycosis fungoides with a new alternate daily treatment schedule to minimize radiation-associated toxicity: a preliminary experience. Clin Exp Dermatol 2009; 34: e379.
  • 37
    Jones GW, Kacinski BM, Wilson LD et al. Total skin electron radiation in the management of mycosis fungoides: Consensus of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Cutaneous Lymphoma Project Group. J Am Acad Dermatol 2002; 47: 36470.
  • 38
    Goujon E, Truc G, Petrella T et al. Total skin electron beam therapy for early-stage mycosis fungoides: immediate results and long-term follow-up in 68 patients. Ann Dermatol Venereol 2009; 136: 24955.
  • 39
    Funk A, Hensley F, Krempien R et al. Palliative total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) for advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Eur J Dermatol 2008; 18: 30812.
  • 40
    Introcaso CE, Micaily B, Richardson SK et al. Total skin electron beam therapy may be associated with improvement of peripheral blood disease in Sezary syndrome. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008; 58: 5925.
  • 41
    Huang J, Cowper S, Moss J, Girardi M. Case experience of 308-nm excimer laser therapy compatibility with PUVA and oral bexarotene for the treatment of cutaneous lesions in mycosis fungoides. J Drugs Dermatol 2013; 12: 4879.
  • 42
    Olsen EA. Interferon in the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Dermatol Ther 2003; 16: 31121.
  • 43
    Stadler R, Otte HG. Combination therapy of cutaneous T cell lymphoma with interferon alpha-2a and photochemotherapy. Recent Results Cancer Res 1995; 139: 391401.
  • 44
    Kaplan EH, Rosen ST, Norris DB et al. Phase II study of recombinant human interferon gamma for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Natl Cancer Inst 1990; 82: 20812.
  • 45
    Molin S, Ruzicka T. Possible benefit of oral alitretinoin in T-lymphoproliferative diseases: a report of two patients with palmoplantar hyperkeratotic-rhagadiform skin changes and mycosis fungoides or Sezary syndrome. Br J Dermatol 2009; 161: 14202.
  • 46
    Motschenbacher S, Buder K, Goebeler M, Kerstan A. Combined oral alitretinoin and narrowband UVB treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma: favourable response after multiple ineffective systemic therapies. Eur J Dermatol 2012; 22: 8034.
  • 47
    Richardson SK, Newton SB, Bach TL et al. Bexarotene blunts malignant T-cell chemotaxis in Sezary syndrome: reduction of chemokine receptor 4-positive lymphocytes and decreased chemotaxis to thymus and activation-regulated chemokine. Am J Hematol 2007; 82: 7927.
  • 48
    Whittaker S, Ortiz P, Dummer R et al. Efficacy and safety of bexarotene combined with psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA) compared with PUVA treatment alone in stage IB-IIA mycosis fungoides: final results from the EORTC Cutaneous Lymphoma Task Force phase III randomized clinical trial (NCT00056056). Br J Dermatol 2012; 167: 67887.
  • 49
    Weichenthal M, Goldinger S, Wehkamp U et al. Response of rare variants of cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) to treatment with bexarotene. A prospective German DeCOG trial. Blood 2013; 122: 4379.
  • 50
    Arulogun S, Prince HM, Gambell P et al. Extracorporeal photopheresis for the treatment of Sezary syndrome using a novel treatment protocol. J Am Acad Dermatol 2008; 59: 58995.
  • 51
    Knobler R, Berlin G, Calzavara-Pinton P et al. Guidelines on the use of extracorporeal photopheresis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol 2014; 28 Suppl 1: 137.
  • 52
    Querfeld C, Mehta N, Rosen ST et al. Alemtuzumab for relapsed and refractory erythrodermic cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: a single institution experience from the Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center. Leuk Lymphoma 2009; 50: 196976.
  • 53
    Kennedy GA, Seymour JF, Wolf M et al. Treatment of patients with advanced mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome with alemtuzumab. Eur J Haematol 2003; 71: 2506.
  • 54
    Alinari L, Geskin L, Grady T et al. Subcutaneous alemtuzumab for Sezary Syndrome in the very elderly. Leuk Res 2008; 32: 1299303.
  • 55
    Alexandroff AB, Shpadaruk V, Bamford WM et al. Alemtuzumab- resistant Sezary syndrome responding to zanolimumab. Br J Haematol 2011; 154: 41921.
  • 56
    Kim YH, Duvic M, Obitz E et al. Clinical efficacy of zanolimumab (HuMax-CD4): two phase 2 studies in refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Blood 2007; 109: 465562.
  • 57
    Ogura M, Ishida T, Hatake K et al. Multicenter phase II study of mogamulizumab (KW-0761), a defucosylated anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 antibody, in patients with relapsed peripheral T-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2014; 32(11): 115763.
  • 58
    Olsen EA, Kim YH, Kuzel TM et al. Phase IIb multicenter trial of vorinostat in patients with persistent, progressive, or treatment refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2007; 25: 310915.
  • 59
    Whittaker SJ, Demierre MF, Kim EJ et al. Final results from a multicenter, international, pivotal study of romidepsin in refractory cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 448591.
  • 60
    Piekarz RL, Frye R, Turner M et al. Phase II multi-institutional trial of the histone deacetylase inhibitor romidepsin as monotherapy for patients with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. J Clin Oncol 2009; 27: 54107.
  • 61
    Duvic M, Geskin L, Prince HM. Duration of response in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma patients treated with denileukin diftitox: results from 3 phase III studies. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2013; 13: 37784.
  • 62
    Zackheim HS, Kashani-Sabet M, McMillan A. Low-dose methotrexate to treat mycosis fungoides: a retrospective study in 69 patients. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003; 49: 8738.
  • 63
    Assaf C, Becker JC, Beyer M et al. Treatment of advanced cutaneous T-cell lymphomas with non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin – consensus of the lymphoma group of the Working Group Dermatologic Oncology. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 2013; 11: 33847.
  • 64
    Duvic M, Talpur R, Wen S et al. Phase II evaluation of gemcitabine monotherapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma 2006; 7: 518.
  • 65
    Zinzani PL, Venturini F, Stefoni V et al. Gemcitabine as single agent in pretreated T-cell lymphoma patients: evaluation of the long-term outcome. Ann Oncol 2010; 21: 8603.
  • 66
    Duvic M, Donato M, Dabaja B et al. Total skin electron beam and non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation in advanced mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome. J Clin Oncol 2010; 28: 236572.
  • 67
    Kahata K, Hashino S, Takahata M et al. Durable remission of Sezary syndrome after unrelated bone marrow transplantation by reduced-intensity conditioning. Acta Haematol 2008; 120: 148.