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Managing sun bears in a changing tropical landscape


Correspondence: Wai-Ming Wong, Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, University of Kent, CT2 7NR, UK.




Across the tropics, large-bodied mammal species are threatened by rapid and widespread forest habitat conversion by either commercial logging or agricultural expansion. How such species use these habitats is an important area of research for guiding their future management. The tropical forest-dwelling sun bear, Helarctos malayanus, is the least known of the eight bear species. Consequently, the IUCN/SSC Bear Specialist Group ranks research on this species as a top priority. This study aims to investigate landscape variables that influence sun bear habitat use in forests under varying levels of degradation and protection.


A 20,998 km2 Sumatra forest landscape covering Kerinci Seblat National Park (KSNP), Batang Hari Protection Forest (BHPF) and neighbouring logging and agricultural concessions.


An occupancy-based sampling technique using detection/non-detection data with 10 landscape covariates was applied in six study areas that operated a total of 125 camera traps. The potential differences between habitat use (ψ) of sun bears were first modelled with broad-scale covariates of study area, land-use types and forest type. Sun bear habitat use was then investigated with the finer-scale landscape features associated within these areas.


From 10,935 trap nights, sun bears were recorded at altitudes ranging from 365 to 1791 m. At a broad-scale, habitat use increased with protection status, being highest in KSNP (0.688 ± 0.092, ± SE) and BHPF (0.621 ± 0.110) compared to production (0.418 ± 0.121) and convertible (0.286 ± 0.122) forests. Within these areas, sun bears showed a preference for forest that was further from public roads and villages and at a lower elevation.

Main conclusions

The habitat suitability model identified several high-quality habitat patches outside of the priority conservation areas for immediate protection. Consequently, conservation management strategies should emphasize the importance of high conservation value forests and prohibit further conversion of threatened lowland forests.