Table S1 Pearson's product–moment correlation r matrix of environmental input layers.

Table S2. Three most important variables and their relative contributions (%) of the environmental variables to the MaxEnt models.

Table S3. Outcome of the MaxEnt distribution models for the simulated data DHOsim and PPLsim.

Table S4. Evaluation of spatial extrapolation errors (omission and commission errors) in three different scenarios (baseline, background manipulation and balanced) for the simulated data (DHOsim and PPLsim) separated for Sabah and the rest of Borneo.

Figure S1. Example of bias file.

Figure S2. Predefined suitable areas of (a) a range-restricted species occurring in mountainous forests (DHOsim) and (b) a lowland species dwelling in peat swamps, mangroves and lowland forests (PPLsim).

Figure S3. MaxEnt spatial predictions of the simulated datasets DHOsim and PPLsim for the different scenarios.

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