A conceptual model of community dynamics during the transport stage of the invasion process: a case study of ships’ ballast
Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Diversity and Distributions published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
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Diversity and Distributions
Volume 20, Issue 2, pages 236–244, February 2014
How to Cite
Briski, E., Chan, F. T., MacIsaac, H. J., Bailey, S. A. (2014), A conceptual model of community dynamics during the transport stage of the invasion process: a case study of ships’ ballast. Diversity and Distributions, 20: 236–244. doi: 10.1111/ddi.12154
- Issue published online: 7 JAN 2014
- Article first published online: 25 NOV 2013
- Transport Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada
- NSERC Canadian Aquatic Invasive Species Network
- NSERC Discovery
- Biological invasion;
- colonization pressure;
- introduction risk;
- propagule pressure
After J. L. Lockwood, P. Cassey and T. Blackburn (2009, Diversity and Distributions, 15, 904–910) first described a theoretical relationship between propagule pressure and colonization pressure, two empirical studies demonstrated that the transport stage of the invasion process can profoundly influence the strength of the relationship among multiple events, as well as predictions of introduction risk. However, studies exploring dynamics of transported communities are rare, as repeated-measures sampling during transportation by any vector is logistically difficult. We constructed a conceptual model of community dynamics during transportation and supported it by empirical data for propagule pressure and colonization pressure of plankton.
A conceptual model of community dynamics was developed based on lognormal species abundance distribution and the simulation model of J. L. Lockwood, P. Cassey and T. Blackburn (2009, Diversity and Distributions, 15, 904–910). We considered four cases: case ‘A’ – no reduction in propagule nor colonization pressure; case ‘B’ – strong reduction in propagule and mild reduction in colonization pressure; case ‘C’ – mild reduction in propagule and strong reduction in colonization pressure; and case ‘D’ – strong reduction in both propagule and colonization pressures.
The cases ‘B’, ‘C’ and ‘D’ were supported by empirical data for invertebrates, dinoflagellates and diatoms from ships’ ballast tanks, respectively. Propagule pressure of invertebrates, dinoflagellates and diatoms decreased 99.95%, 80% and 94% in 25 days, respectively, while colonization pressure decreased 34%, 57% and 64%.
Transport affects both propagule pressure and colonization pressure of taxa, with the magnitude of change dependent on length of transport and taxon-specific survival and reproduction. Our model demonstrates that introduction risk varies substantially across and within taxa depending on the occurrence and severity of selection pressures during transportation which serve to change species abundance distributions.