The authors acknowledge with thanks constructive comments provided by anonymous referees.
Sustainable Graduation from Social Protection Programmes
Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013
© 2013 International Institute of Social Studies
Development and Change
Volume 44, Issue 4, pages 911–938, July 2013
How to Cite
Sabates-Wheeler, R. and Devereux, S. (2013), Sustainable Graduation from Social Protection Programmes. Development and Change, 44: 911–938. doi: 10.1111/dech.12047
- Issue published online: 1 JUL 2013
- Article first published online: 1 JUL 2013
Efforts to reduce extreme poverty by assisting poor people to cross income or asset thresholds are receiving increasing attention in social protection programming. Livelihood-promoting interventions aim to reduce vulnerability, so that participants can manage moderate risk and ‘graduate’ from social protection provision. This article elaborates the theory of change underpinning the notion of graduation and explores the range of enabling and constraining factors that facilitate or undermine this change process, drawing on case studies from Bangladesh, Ethiopia and Rwanda. The authors distinguish ‘threshold’ graduation from ‘sustainable’ graduation and argue that multiple factors operating beyond the household level — such as market conditions, community investment and scale effects — have significant implications for the graduation potential of social protection programmes.