We appreciate comments received on earlier drafts from Liz Garland, Nicole Smith, Coleen Scanlon-Lyons as well as from two anonymous referees. We are also grateful for the assistance and cooperation received from villagers in Enduimet and Simanjiro and Maasai civil society organizations working in Loliondo. Benjaminsen, Minwary and Maganga received funding from the Norwegian Programme for Development, Research and Education (NUFU), while Goldman acknowledges funding from the National Science Foundation's International Research Fellowship Postdoctoral Grant #0602034 as well as grant #0921507.
Wildlife Management in Tanzania: State Control, Rent Seeking and Community Resistance
Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2013
© 2013 The Authors. Development and Change published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Institute of Social Studies
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.
Development and Change
Volume 44, Issue 5, pages 1087–1109, September 2013
How to Cite
Benjaminsen, T. A., Goldman, M. J., Minwary, M. Y. and Maganga, F. P. (2013), Wildlife Management in Tanzania: State Control, Rent Seeking and Community Resistance. Development and Change, 44: 1087–1109. doi: 10.1111/dech.12055
- Issue online: 12 SEP 2013
- Version of Record online: 21 AUG 2013
- Norwegian Programme for Development, Research and Education (NUFU)
- National Science Foundation's International Research Fellowship Postdoctoral. Grant Numbers: #0602034, #0921507
- 1999) ‘Accountability in Decentralization: A Framework with South Asian and West African Cases’, The Journal of Developing Areas 33: 473–562. and (
- 1993) The State in Africa: Politics of the Belly. Harlow: Longman. (
- 1999) The Criminalization of the State in Africa. Oxford: James Currey. , and (
- 1997) ‘Natural Resource Management, Paradigm Shifts, and the Decentralization Reform in Mali’, Human Ecology 25(1): 121–43. (
- 2012) ‘Conservation, Green/Blue Grabbing and Accumulation by Dispossession in Tanzania’, Journal of Peasant Studies 39(2): 335–55. and (
- 2010) ‘The Death of an Elephant: Conservation Discourses versus Practices in Africa’, Forum for Development Studies 37(3): 385–408. and (
- 2012) ‘The REDD Menace: Resurgent Protectionism in Tanzania's Mangrove Forests’, Global Environmental Change 22(2): 332–41. and (
- 1993) At the Hand of Man: Peril and Hope for Africa's Wildlife. New York: Vintage Books. (
- 1982) ‘Recommendations for a Multiple Land Use Authority Adjacent to Tarangire National Park, Arusha Region Tanzania’. Frankfurt: Frankfurt Zoological Society. (
- 2002) Fortress Conservation: The Preservation of the Mkomazi Game Reserve, Tanzania. Oxford: James Currey. (
- 2008) Nature Unbound: Conservation, Capitalism and the Future of Protected Areas. London: Earthscan. , and (
- 2010) ‘Anti-Politics as Political Strategy: Neoliberalism and Transfrontier Conservation in Southern Africa’, Development and Change 41(1): 29–51. (
- 2007) ‘Subdividing the Savanna: The Ecology of Change in Northern Tanzania’. PhD thesis, Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina. (
- 2011) ‘Public Goods, Rent and Business in Tanzania’. Africa Power and Politics Programme, Background Paper 01. London: Overseas Development Institute. (
- 2011) ‘“Ha! What is the Benefit of Living Next to the Park?” Factors Limiting In-migration next to Tarangire National Park, Tanzania’, Conservation and Society 9(1): 25–34. (
- FEMACT (2009) ‘FEMACT Loliondo Findings’. Dar es Salaam: Feminist Activist Coalition (FEMACT).
- 2007) ‘Producing Pastoral Power: Territory, Identity and Rule in Tanzanian Maasailand’. PhD thesis, Department of Geography, University of California, Berkeley, CA. (
- 2012) ‘Tourism and the Politics of the Global Land Grab in Tanzania: Markets, Appropriation and Recognition’, Journal of Peasant Studies 39(3): 377–402. (
- 2006) ‘State of Nature: Colonial Power, Neoliberal Capital, and Wildlife Management in Tanzania’. PhD thesis, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, IL. (
- 2008) ‘The Elephant in the Room: Confronting the Colonial Character of Wildlife Conservation in Africa’, African Studies Review 51(3): 51–74. (
- 2003) ‘Partitioned Nature, Privileged Knowledge: Community-based Conservation in Tanzania’, Development and Change 34(5): 833–62. (
- 2009) ‘Constructing Connectivity? Conservation Corridors and Conservation Politics in East African Rangelands’, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 99(2): 335–59. (
- 2013) ‘Land Grabs in Loliondo, Tanzania, Affecting the Maasai’. Cultural Survival, 29 March. http://www.culturalsurvival.org/news/land-grabs-loliondo-tanzania-affecting-maasai (accessed 22 May 2013). (
- 2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (
- 2007) Neoliberal Environments: False Promises and Unnatural Consequences. London and New York: Routledge. , , and (
- 2002) ‘Dilemmas of Counter-mapping Community Resources in Tanzania’, Development and Change 33(1): 79–100. and (
- Homewood, K., P. Kristjanson and P. Trench (eds) (2009) Staying Maasai? Livelihoods, Conservation and Development in East African Rangelands. New York: Springer.
- 2008) Ecotourism and Sustainable Development. Who Owns Paradise? Washington, DC: Island Press. (
- 2004) Conservation and Globalization: A Study of National Parks and Indigenous Communities from East Africa to South Dakota. Riverside, CA: Wadsworth Publishing. (
- 2007) ‘Neoliberal Conservation: A Brief Introduction’, Conservation and Society 5(4): 432–49. and (
- 2007) ‘Conservation, Commerce, and Communities: The Story of Community-Based Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania's Northern Tourist Circuit’, Conservation and Society 5(4): 534–61. and (
- 2008) ‘Problematizing Neoliberal Biodiversity Conservation: Displaced and Disobedient Knowledge. An Executive Summary for the International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED)’. www.iied.org/pubs/pdfs/G02526.pdf and (
- 2009) ‘Does Aid Work? Reflections on a Natural Resources Programme in Tanzania’. U4 Brief No 2. Bergen: Christian Michelsen Institute. (
- 2009) ‘The Influence of Corruption on the Conduct of Recreational Hunting’, in B. Dickson, J. Hutton and W.M. Adams (eds) Recreational Hunting, Conservation and Rural Livelihoods: Science and Practice, pp. 296–316. Oxford: Blackwell. , and (
- 2003) ‘Sustainability and Livelihood Diversification among the Maasai of Northern Tanzania’, Human Organization 62(2): 100–111. (
- 2009) ‘Reforming Wildlife Governance in East and Southern Africa: The Role of Corruption’. U4 Brief No 12. Bergen: Christian Michelsen Institute. (
- Nelson, F. (ed.) (2010) Community Rights, Conservation & Contested Land. The Politics of Natural Resource Governance in Africa. London: Earthscan.
- 2008) ‘Patronage or Participation? Community-based Natural Resource Management Reform in Sub-Saharan Africa’, Development and Change 39(4): 557–85. and (
- 2009) ‘Community-Based Conservation and Maasai Livelihoods in Tanzania’, in K. Homewood, P. Kristjanson and P. Trench (eds) Staying Maasai? Livelihoods, Conservation and Development in East African Rangelands, pp. 299–333. New York: Springer. , , and (
- 2007) ‘The Evolution and Reform of Tanzanian Wildlife Management’, Conservation and Society 5(2): 232–61. , and (
- 2005) ‘Communities, Conservation, and Conflict in the Tanzanian Serengeti’, in B. Child and M.W. Lyman (eds) Natural Resources as Community Assets: Lessons from Two Continents. Madison, WI: Sand County Foundation and the Aspen Institute. http://www.sandcounty.net/assets/chapters/assets_chapter_5.pdf and (
- 1998) Imposing Wilderness: Struggles over Livelihood and Nature Preservation in Africa. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. (
- 2000) ‘Land, Justice, and the Politics of Conservation in Tanzania’, in C. Zerner (ed.) People, Plants, and Justice: The Politics of Nature Conservation, pp. 117–43. New York: Columbia University Press. (
- 2008) ‘The Pastoral Women's Council: Empowerment for Tanzania's Maasai’. IIED Gatekeeper series No. 137e. London: International Institute for Environment and Development. (
- 2010) ‘Pastoral Activists: Negotiating Power Imbalances in the Tanzanian Serengeti’, in F. Nelson (ed.) Community Rights, Conservation & Contested Land. The Politics of Natural Resource Governance in Africa, pp. 269–89. London: Earthscan. , , and (
- 2007) ‘Villages Granted Total Authority over Wildlife’, Arusha Times 18–24 August. Issue 0856–9135. http://www.arushatimes.co.tz/2007/32/front_page_1.htm (accessed: 25 April 2009). (
- 1999) ‘Granting Hunting Blocks in Tanzania: The Need for Reform’. Lawyers’ Environmental Action Team (LEAT) Policy Brief No. 5. http://www.leat.or.tz/publications/hunting.blocks. (
- Pampazuka News (2009) ‘Tanzania: Loliondo Report of Findings’. http://www.pambazuka.org/en/category/advocacy/58956.
- 2013) ‘Tanzania's Maasai Battle Game Hunters for Grazing Land’. BBC News,18 April. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-22155538 (accessed 22 May 2013). (
- 2010) ‘Does REDD+ Threaten to Recentralize Forest Governance?’, Science 328: 312–13. , and (
- 2009) ‘Tourism is a Curse to Us’, The Observer 6 September. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/sep/06/masai-tribesman-tanzania-tourism. (
- 2003) ‘Democratic Decentralization of Natural Resources: Institutional Choice and Discretionary Power Transfers in Sub-Saharan Africa’, Public Administration and Development 23(1): 53–65. (
- 2008) ‘Wildlife is Our Oil: Conservation, Livelihoods and NGOs in the Tarangire Ecosystem, Tanzania’. DPhil thesis, School of Geography and the Environment, University of Oxford. (
- 2010) ‘Carbon, Forests and the REDD Paradox’, Oryx 44(3): 330–34. , , and (
- 1995) ‘Manifest Ecological Destinies: Local Rights and Global Environmental Agendas’, Antipode 27: 321–4. and (
- 1998) Maasai Rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. London: International Institute for Environment and Development. and (
- 2006) ‘The Elephant in the Room? Problematising “New” (Neoliberal) Biodiversity Conservation’, Forum for Development Studies 33(1): 105–35. (
- TCP (1998) ‘Tarangire Conservation Project: Analysis of Migratory Movements of Large Mammals and their Interaction with Human Activities in the Tarangire Area in Tanzania as a Contribution to a Conservation and Sustainable Development Strategy’. Milan: University of Milan, Varese Branch; Arusha: Instituto OIKOS.
- 2009) ‘Still “People of Cattle”? Livelihoods, Diversification and Community Conservaion in Longido District’, in K. Homewood, P. Kristjanson and P.C. Trench (eds) Staying Maasai? Livelihoods, Conservation and Development in East African Rangelands, pp. 217–56. New York: Springer. , , and (
- URT (1998) ‘Wildlife Policy of Tanzania’. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, The United Republic of Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.
- URT (2007) ‘Wildlife Policy’. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.
- URT (2008) ‘Wildlife Conservation (Non-Consumptive Wildlife Utilization) Regulations, 2007 (Amended)’. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.
- URT (2009) ‘Wildlife Conservation Act’. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer.
- URT (2012) ‘The Wildlife Conservation (Wildlife Management Areas) Regulations’. Ministry of Natural Resources and Tourism, The United Republic of Tanzania. Dar es Salaam: Government Printer. http://www.tnrf.org/files/WMA%20regulations%202012.pdf
- 1999) ‘Resource Partitioning between Sympatric Wild and Domestic Herbivores in the Tarangire Region of Tanzania’, Oecologia 120(2): 287–94. and (
- 2001) African Economies and the Politics of Permanent Crisis, 1979–1999. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (
- World Bank (2008) Putting Tanzania's Hidden Economy to Work: Reform, Management and Protection of its Natural Resource Sector. Washington, DC: World Bank.
- World Bank (2012) ‘Tanzania Economic Update: Stairways to Heaven’. http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTAFRICA/Resources/Tanzania_Economic_Update_201202.pdf