Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 15 Issue 3

May 2012

Volume 15, Issue 3

Pages i–ii, 299–461

  1. ISSUE INFORMATION

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
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      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01110.x

  2. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    1. Reduced looming sensitivity in primary school children with Developmental Co-ordination Disorder (pages 299–306)

      Catherine Purcell, John P. Wann, Kate Wilmut and Damian Poulter

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01123.x

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      Almost all locomotor animals are sensitive to optical expansion (visual looming) and for most animals this sensitivity is evident very early in their development. In humans there is evidence that responses to looming stimuli begin in the first 6 weeks of life, but here we demonstrate that as children become independent their perceptual acuity needs to be 50 to 100 times better than has been demonstrated in infants in order to be skilful at collision avoidance at a roadside.

    2. Amygdala response to mother (pages 307–319)

      Nim Tottenham, Mor Shapiro, Eva H. Telzer and Kathryn L. Humphreys

      Article first published online: 10 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01128.x

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      In altricial species, like the human, the caregiver, very often the mother, is one of the most potent stimuli during development. The distinction between mothers and other adults is learned early in life and results in numerous behaviors in the child, most notably mother-approach and stranger wariness. The current study examined the influence of the maternal stimulus on amygdale activity and related circuitry in 25 developing children (n = 13) and adolescents (n = 12), and how this circuitry was associated with attachment-related behaviors.

    3. The growth of reading skills in children with Down Syndrome (pages 320–329)

      Charles Hulme, Kristina Goetz, Sophie Brigstocke, Hannah M. Nash, Arne Lervåg and Margaret J. Snowling

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2011 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01129.x

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      There appears to be a close and probably causal relationship between early variations in phoneme skills and later reading skills in typically developing children, though the pattern in children with Down Syndrome is less clear. We present the results of a 2-year longitudinal study of 49 children with Down Syndrome (DS) and 61 typically developing (TD) control children with similar initial levels of reading skill. Phoneme awareness and vocabulary were strong concurrent predictors of initial levels of reading skill in both groups.

    4. Electrophysiological evidence for late maturation of strategic episodic retrieval processes (pages 330–344)

      Volker Sprondel, Kerstin H. Kipp and Axel Mecklinger

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01130.x

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      Improvement in source memory performance throughout development is thought to be mediated by strategic processes that facilitate the retrieval of task-relevant information. Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined developmental changes in these processes during adolescence. Adolescents (13–14 years) and adults (19–29 years) completed a memory exclusion task which required the discrimination between words studied in one color (‘targets’) and words studied in the alternative color (‘nontargets’) under two conditions that put different demands on strategic control.

    5. Electrophysiological evidence of altered memory processing in children experiencing early deprivation (pages 345–358)

      O. Evren Güler, Camelia E. Hostinar, Kristin A. Frenn, Charles A. Nelson, Megan R. Gunnar and Kathleen M. Thomas

      Article first published online: 18 JAN 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01131.x

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      Associations between early deprivation and memory functioning were examined in 9- to 11-year-old children. Children who had experienced prolonged institutional care prior to adoption were compared to children who were adopted early from foster care and children reared in birth families. Measures included the Paired Associates Learning task from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test and Automated Battery (CANTAB) and a continuous recognition memory task during which ERPs were also recorded. Children who experienced prolonged institutionalization showed deficits in both behavioral memory measures as well as an attenuated P300 parietal memory effect.

    6. Building biases in infancy: the influence of race on face and voice emotion matching (pages 359–372)

      Margaret Vogel, Alexandra Monesson and Lisa S. Scott

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01138.x

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      Early in the first year of life infants exhibit equivalent performance to distinguishing among people within their own race and within other races. However, with development and experience, their face recognition skills become tuned to groups of people they interact with the most. This developmental tuning is hypothesized to be the origin of adult face processing biases including the other-race bias. In adults the other-race bias has also been associated with impairments in facial emotion processing for other-race faces.

    7. Sex differences in fetal habituation (pages 373–383)

      Peter G. Hepper, James C. Dornan and Catherine Lynch

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2011.01132.x

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      There is some evidence for sex differences in habituation in the human fetus, but it is unknown whether this is due to differences in central processing (habituation) or in more peripheral processes, sensory or motor, involved in the response. This study examined whether the sex of the fetus influenced auditory habituation at 33 weeks of gestation, and whether this was due to differences in habituation or in the sensory or motor components using a set of four experiments. The first experiment found that female fetuses required significantly fewer stimulus presentations to habituate than males.

    8. Ethnic differences in mother–infant language and gestural communications are associated with specific skills in infants (pages 384–397)

      Catherine S. Tamis-LeMonda, Lulu Song, Ashley Smith Leavell, Ronit Kahana-Kalman and Hirokazu Yoshikawa

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01136.x

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      We examined gestural and verbal interactions in 226 mother–infant pairs from Mexican, Dominican, and African American backgrounds when infants were 14 months and 2 years of age, and related these interactions to infants’ emerging skills. At both ages, dyads were video-recorded as they shared a wordless number book, a wordless emotion book, and beads and string. We coded mothers’ and infants’ gestures and language / vocalizations. Each maternal utterance was coded as referential (e.g. ‘That’s a bead’) or regulatory (e.g. ‘Put it there’).

    9. Active music classes in infancy enhance musical, communicative and social development (pages 398–407)

      David Gerry, Andrea Unrau and Laurel J. Trainor

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01142.x

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      Previous studies suggest that musical training in children can positively affect various aspects of development. However, it remains unknown as to how early in development musical experience can have an effect, the nature of any such effects, and whether different types of music experience affect development differently. We found that random assignment to 6 months of active participatory musical experience beginning at 6 months of age accelerates acquisition of culture-specific knowledge of Western tonality in comparison to a similar amount of passive exposure to music.

    10. Circadian rhythms in executive function during the transition to adolescence: the effect of synchrony between chronotype and time of day (pages 408–416)

      Constanze Hahn, Jason M. Cowell, Ursula J. Wiprzycka, David Goldstein, Martin Ralph, Lynn Hasher and Philip David Zelazo

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01137.x

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      To explore the influence of circadian rhythms on executive function during early adolescence, we administered a battery of executive function measures (including a Go-Nogo task, the Iowa Gambling Task, a Self-ordered Pointing task, and an Intra / Extradimensional Shift task) to Morning-preference and Evening-preference participants (N = 80) between the ages of 11 and 14 years who were tested in the morning or afternoon. Significant Chronotype • Time of Day interactions (controlling for amount of sleep the previous night) revealed that adolescents tested at their optimal times of day performed better than those tested at their nonoptimal times.

    11. Best friends: children use mutual gaze to identify friendships in others (pages 417–425)

      Erika Nurmsoo, Shiri Einav and Bruce M. Hood

      Article first published online: 7 MAR 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01143.x

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      This study examined children’s ability to use mutual eye gaze as a cue to friendships in others. In Experiment 1, following a discussion about friendship, 4-, 5-, and 6 year-olds were shown animations in which three cartoon children looked at one another, and were told that one target character had a best friend. Although all age groups accurately detected the mutual gaze between the target and another character, only 5- and 6 year-olds used this cue to infer friendship.

    12. Dynamic pointing triggers shifts of visual attention in young infants (pages 426–435)

      Katharina J. Rohlfing, Matthew R. Longo and Bennett I. Bertenthal

      Article first published online: 29 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01139.x

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      Pointing, like eye gaze, is a deictic gesture that can be used to orient the attention of another person towards an object or an event. Previous research suggests that infants first begin to follow a pointing gesture between 10 and 13 months of age. We investigated whether sensitivity to pointing could be seen at younger ages employing a technique recently used to show early sensitivity to perceived eye gaze. Three experiments were conducted with 4.5- and 6.5-month-old infants.

    13. Epistemic trust: modeling children’s reasoning about others’ knowledge and intent (pages 436–447)

      Patrick Shafto, Baxter Eaves, Daniel J. Navarro and Amy Perfors

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01135.x

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      A core assumption of many theories of development is that children can learn indirectly from other people. However, indirect experience (or testimony) is not constrained to provide veridical information. As a result, if children are to capitalize on this source of knowledge, they must be able to infer who is trustworthy and who is not. How might a learner make such inferences while at the same time learning about the world? What biases, if any, might children bring to this problem?

    14. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience (pages 448–461)

      Derek M. Houston, Jessica Stewart, Aaron Moberly, George Hollich and Richard T. Miyamoto

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01140.x

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      Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word / novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not.

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