Developmental Science

Cover image for Developmental Science

November 2012

Volume 15, Issue 6

Pages i–ii, 731–894

  1. ISSUE INFORMATION

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. EDITORIAL
    4. PAPERS
    5. SHORT REPORT
    6. PAPERS
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01113.x

  2. EDITORIAL

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. EDITORIAL
    4. PAPERS
    5. SHORT REPORT
    6. PAPERS
    1. You have free access to this content
  3. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. EDITORIAL
    4. PAPERS
    5. SHORT REPORT
    6. PAPERS
    1. Toddlers recognize words in an unfamiliar accent after brief exposure (pages 732–738)

      Rachel Schmale, Alejandrina Cristia and Amanda Seidl

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01175.x

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      Both subjective impressions and previous research with monolingual listeners suggest that a foreign accent interferes with word recognition in infants, young children, and adults. However, because being exposed to multiple accents is likely to be an everyday occurrence in many societies, it is unexpected that such non-standard pronunciations would significantly impede language processing once the listener has experience with the relevant accent. Indeed, we report that 24-month-olds successfully accommodate an unfamiliar accent in rapid word learning after less than two minutes of accent exposure. These results underline the robustness of our speech perception mechanisms, which allow listeners to adapt even in the absence of extensive lexical knowledge and clear known-word referents.

    2. Simulating the role of visual selective attention during the development of perceptual completion (pages 739–752)

      Matthew Schlesinger, Dima Amso and Scott P. Johnson

      Article first published online: 26 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01177.x

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      We recently proposed a multi-channel, image-filtering model for simulating the development of visual selective attention in young infants (Schlesinger, Amso & Johnson, 2007). The model not only captures the performance of 3-month-olds on a visual search task, but also implicates two cortical regions that may play a role in the development of visual selective attention. In the current simulation study, we used the same model to simulate 3-month-olds’ performance on a second measure, the perceptual unity task. Two parameters in the model – corresponding to areas in the occipital and parietal cortices – were systematically varied while the gaze patterns produced by the model were recorded and subsequently analyzed.

    3. Class matters: 12-month-olds’ word–object associations privilege content over function words (pages 753–761)

      Heather MacKenzie, Suzanne Curtin and Susan A. Graham

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01166.x

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      A fundamental step in learning words is the development of an association between a sound pattern and an element in the environment. Here we explore the nature of this associative ability in 12-month-olds, examining whether it is constrained to privilege particular word forms over others. Forty-eight infants were presented with sets of novel English content-like word–object pairings (e.g. fep) or novel English function-like word–object (e.g. iv) pairings until they habituated. Results indicated that infants associated novel content-like words, but not the novel function-like words, with novel objects.

    4. Preschool children’s interpretation of object-initial sentences: Neural correlates of their behavioral performance (pages 762–774)

      Christine S. Schipke, Lisa J. Knoll, Angela D. Friederici and Regine Oberecker

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01167.x

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      The acquisition of the function of case-marking is a key step in the development of sentence processing for German-speaking children since case-marking reveals the relations between sentential arguments. In this study, we investigated the development of the processing of case-marking and argument structures in children at 3, 4;6 and 6 years of age, as well as its processing in adults. Using EEG, we measured event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to object-initial compared to subject-initial German sentences including transitive verbs and case-marked noun phrases referring to animate arguments.

    5. Biracial and monoracial infant own-race face perception: an eye tracking study (pages 775–782)

      Sarah E. Gaither, Kristin Pauker and Scott P. Johnson

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01170.x

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      We know that early experience plays a crucial role in the development of face processing, but we know little about how infants learn to distinguish faces from different races, especially for non-Caucasian populations. Moreover, it is unknown whether differential processing of different race faces observed in typically studied monoracial infants extends to biracial infants as well. Thus, we investigated 3-month-old Caucasian, Asian and biracial (Caucasian-Asian) infants’ ability to distinguish Caucasian and Asian faces. Infants completed two within-subject, infant-controlled habituation sequences and test trials as an eye tracker recorded looking times and scanning patterns.

    6. Go naked: diapers affect infant walking (pages 783–790)

      Whitney G. Cole, Jesse M. Lingeman and Karen E. Adolph

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01169.x

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      In light of cross-cultural and experimental research highlighting effects of childrearing practices on infant motor skill, we asked whether wearing diapers, a seemingly innocuous childrearing practice, affects infant walking. Diapers introduce bulk between the legs, potentially exacerbating infants’ poor balance and wide stance. We show that walking is adversely affected by old-fashioned cloth diapers, and that even modern disposable diapers – habitually worn by most infants in the sample – incur a cost relative to walking naked.

    7. Temporal discounting of monetary rewards in children and adolescents with ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (pages 791–800)

      Ellen Demurie, Herbert Roeyers, Dieter Baeyens and Edmund Sonuga-Barke

      Article first published online: 29 AUG 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01178.x

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      It has been difficult to differentiate attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in terms of some aspects of their cognitive profile. While both show deficits in executive functions, it has been suggested that they may differ in their response to monetary reward. For instance, children with ADHD prefer small immediate over large delayed rewards more than typically developing controls. One explanation for this is that they discount the value of rewards to a higher degree as they are moved into the future. The current study investigated whether children with ADHD can be differentiated from those with ASD in terms of reward discounting.

    8. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      The relationship between puberty and social emotion processing (pages 801–811)

      Anne-Lise Goddings, Stephanie Burnett Heyes, Geoffrey Bird, Russell M. Viner and Sarah-Jayne Blakemore

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01174.x

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      The social brain undergoes developmental change during adolescence, and pubertal hormones are hypothesized to contribute to this development. We used fMRI to explore how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to brain activity during a social emotion task. Forty-two females aged 11.1 to 13.7 years underwent fMRI scanning while reading scenarios pertaining either to social emotions, which require the representation of another person’s mental states, or to basic emotions, which do not.

  4. SHORT REPORT

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. EDITORIAL
    4. PAPERS
    5. SHORT REPORT
    6. PAPERS
    1. Influence of bilingualism on memory generalization during infancy (pages 812–816)

      Natalie Brito and Rachel Barr

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.1184.x

      Very few studies have examined the cognitive advantages of bilingualism during the first two years of development, and a majority of the studies examining bilingualism throughout the lifespan have focused on the relationship between multiple languages and cognitive control. Early experience with multiple language systems may influence domaingeneral processes, such as memory, that may increase a bilingual child’s capacity for learning. In the current study, we found that bilingual, but not monolingual, infants were able to generalize across cues at 18 months. This is the first study to show a clear bilingual advantage in memory generalization, with more equal or balanced exposure to each language significantly predicting ability to generalize.

  5. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. EDITORIAL
    4. PAPERS
    5. SHORT REPORT
    6. PAPERS
    1. Origins of the human pointing gesture: a training study (pages 817–829)

      Danielle Matthews, Tanya Behne, Elena Lieven and Michael Tomasello

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01181.x

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      Despite its importance in the development of children’s skills of social cognition and communication, very little is known about the ontogenetic origins of the pointing gesture. We report a training study in which mothers gave children one month of extra daily experience with pointing as compared with a control group who had extra experience with musical activities. One hundred and two infants of 9, 10, or 11 months of age were seen at the beginning, middle, and end of this one-month period and tested for declarative pointing and gaze following. Infants’ability to point with the index finger at the end of the study was not affected by the training but was instead predicted by infants’ prior ability to follow the gaze direction of an adult.

    2. Neural correlates of perceptual narrowing in cross-species face-voice matching (pages 830–839)

      Tobias Grossmann, Manuela Missana, Angela D. Friederici and Asif A. Ghazanfar

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01179.x

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      Integrating the multisensory features of talking faces is critical to learn and extract coherent meaning from social signals. In the present study, we provide neurophysiological evidence for a developmental decline in cross-species face-voice matching. We measured event-related brain potentials (ERPs) while 4- and 8-month-old infants watched and listened to congruent and incongruent audiovisual presentations of monkey vocalizations and humans mimicking monkey vocalizations. The ERP results indicated that younger infants distinguished between the congruent and the incongruent faces and voices regardless of species, whereas in older infants, the sensitivity to multisensory congruency was limited to the human face and voice.

    3. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development (pages 840–853)

      Alexandra G. Rosati and Brian Hare

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01182.x

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      Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus).

    4. Visual size perception and haptic calibration during development (pages 854–862)

      Monica Gori, Luana Giuliana, Giulio Sandini and David Burr

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.2012.01183.x

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      It is still unclear how the visual system perceives accurately the size of objects at different distances. One suggestion, dating back to Berkeley’s famous essay, is that vision is calibrated by touch. If so, we may expect different mechanisms involved for near, reachable distances and far, unreachable distances. To study how the haptic system calibrates vision we measured size constancy in children (from 6 to 16 years of age) and adults, at various distances.

    5. Learning without representational change: development of numerical estimation in individuals with Williams syndrome (pages 863–875)

      John E. Opfer and Marilee A. Martens

      Article first published online: 29 OCT 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01187.x

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      Experience engenders learning, but not all learning involves representational change. In this paper, we provide a dramatic case study of the distinction between learning and representational change. Specifically, we examined long- and short-term changes in representations of numeric magnitudes by asking individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) and typically developing (TD) children to estimate the position of numbers on a number line. As with TD children, accuracy of WS children's numerical estimates improved with age (Experiment 1) and feedback (Experiment 2).

    6. Doing gesture promotes learning a mental transformation task better than seeing gesture (pages 876–884)

      Susan Goldin-Meadow, Susan C. Levine, Elena Zinchenko, Terina KuangYi Yip, Naureen Hemani and Laiah Factor

      Article first published online: 12 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01185.x

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      Performing action has been found to have a greater impact on learning than observing action. Here we ask whether a particular type of action – the gestures that accompany talk – affect learning in a comparable way. We gave 158 6-year-old children instruction in a mental transformation task. Half the children were asked to produce a Move gesture relevant to the task; half were asked to produce a Point gesture.

    7. Phonotactic acquisition in healthy preterm infants (pages 885–894)

      Nayeli Gonzalez-Gomez and Thierry Nazzi

      Article first published online: 7 SEP 2012 | DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2012.01186.x

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      Previous work has shown that preterm infants are at higher risk for cognitive/language delays than full-term infants. Recent studies, focusing on prosody (i.e. rhythm, intonation), have suggested that prosodic perception development in preterms is indexed by maturational rather than postnatal/listening age. However, because prosody is heard in-utero, and preterms thus lose significant amounts of prenatal prosodic experience, both their maturation level and their prosodic experience (listening age) are shorter than that of full-terms for the same postnatal age. This confound does not apply to the acquisition of phonetics/phonotactics (i.e., identity and order of consonants/vowels), given that consonant differences in particular are only perceived after birth, which could lead to a different developmental pattern. The present results establish that preterm developmental timing for consonant-based phonotactic acquisition is based on listening age (experience with input), raising the possibility that different constraints apply to the acquisition of different phonological subcomponents.

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