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Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 1

January 2014

Volume 17, Issue 1

Pages i–ii, 1–159

  1. ISSUE INFORMATION

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. RETRACTION
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      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12116

  2. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. RETRACTION
    1. You have free access to this content
      Parallel development of ERP and behavioural measurements of visual segmentation (pages 1–10)

      Carlijn van den Boomen, Victor A.F. Lamme and Chantal Kemner

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12093

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      Visual segmentation, a process in which elements are integrated into a form and segregated from the background, is known to differ from adults at infancy. The further developmental trajectory of this process, and of the underlying brain mechanisms, during childhood and adolescence is unknown. Here we study the developmental trajectory of ERP reflections of visual segmentation, and relate this to behavioural performance, in children aged 7 to 18 years of age. Results showed that both behavioural and ERP measurements of visual segmentation differed from adults in 7–12 year-old children and had matured at 13–14 years of age. Findings are discussed in terms of functional connectivity within the visual cortex.

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      Dissociation between small and large numerosities in newborn infants (pages 11–22)

      Aurélie Coubart, Véronique Izard, Elizabeth S. Spelke, Julien Marie and Arlette Streri

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12108

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      In the first year of life, infants possess two cognitive systems encoding numerical information: one for processing the numerosity of sets of 4 or more items, and the second for tracking up to 3 objects in parallel. Using an auditory-visual matching paradigm, a previous study showed the former system to be already present at birth. Here, we adapted this paradigm to test sensitivity to numerosities spanning the range from 2 to 12. Newborns succeeded only for the pairs 4vs12 and 3vs9, showing a behavioral dissociation between small and large numerosities from birth on.

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      Infants' goal anticipation during failed and successful reaching actions (pages 23–34)

      Amanda C. Brandone, Suzanne R. Horwitz, Richard N. Aslin and Henry M. Wellman

      Article first published online: 1 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12095

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      The ability to make predictions about the actions of others is crucial to social interaction and to social, cognitive, and linguistic development. The current study examined this ability in infancy by assessing (1) whether infants can prospectively process actions that fail to achieve their intended outcome, and (2) how infants respond to events in which their initial predictions are not confirmed. Using eye tracking, 8-month-olds, 10-month-olds, and adults watched an actor repeatedly reach over a barrier to successfully or unsuccessfully retrieve a ball. Results provide support for a flexible, prospective social information processing ability that emerges during the first year.

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      Here's looking at you, kid: attention to infant emotional faces in mothers and non-mothers (pages 35–46)

      Chloe Thompson-Booth, Essi Viding, Linda C. Mayes, Helena J.V. Rutherford, Sara Hodsoll and Eamon J. McCrory

      Article first published online: 13 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12090

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      Infant facial cues play a critical role in eliciting care and nurturance from an adult caregiver. Using an attentional capture paradigm we investigated attentional processing of adult and infant emotional facial expressions in a sample of mothers (= 29) and non-mothers (= 37) to determine whether infant faces were associated with greater task interference. Responses to infant target stimuli were slower than adult target stimuli in both groups.

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      Domain-specific development of face memory but not face perception (pages 47–58)

      Sarah Weigelt, Kami Koldewyn, Daniel D. Dilks, Benjamin Balas, Elinor McKone and Nancy Kanwisher

      Article first published online: 7 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12089

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      How does the remarkable human ability for face recognition arise over development? Competing theories have proposed either late maturity (beyond 10 years) or early maturity (before 5 years), but have not distinguished between perceptual and memory aspects of face recognition. Here, we demonstrate a perception–memory dissociation. We compare rate of development for (adult, human) faces versus other social stimuli (bodies), other discrete objects (cars), and other categories processed in discrete brain regions (scenes, bodies), from 5 years to adulthood.

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      Adolescents let sufficient evidence accumulate before making a decision when large incentives are at stake (pages 59–70)

      Theresa Teslovich, Martijn Mulder, Nicholas T. Franklin, Erika J. Ruberry, Alex Millner, Leah H. Somerville, Patrick Simen, Sarah Durston and B. J. Casey

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12092

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      Adolescent decision-making has been described as impulsive and suboptimal in the presence of incentives. In this study we examined the neural substrates of adolescent decision-making using a perceptual discrimination task for which small and large rewards were associated with correctly detecting the direction of motion of a cloud of moving dots. Adults showed a reward bias of faster reaction times on trials for which the direction of motion was associated with a large reward. Adolescents, in contrast, were slower to make decisions on trials associated with large rewards. This behavioral pattern in adolescents was paralleled by greater recruitment of fronto-parietal regions important in representing the accumulation of evidence sufficient for selecting one choice over its alternative and the certainty of that choice. The findings suggest that when large incentives are dependent on performance, adolescents may require more evidence to accumulate prior to responding, to be certain to maximize their gains. Adults, in contrast, appear to be quicker in evaluating the evidence for a decision when primed by rewards. Overall these findings suggest that rather than reacting hastily, adolescents can be incentivized to take more time to make decisions when large rewards are at stake.

  3. SHORT REPORT

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. RETRACTION
    1. You have free access to this content
      Effects of anonymous peer observation on adolescents' preference for immediate rewards (pages 71–78)

      Alexander Weigard, Jason Chein, Dustin Albert, Ashley Smith and Laurence Steinberg

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12099

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      Research suggests that the presence of peers influences adolescent risk-taking by increasing the perceived reward value of risky decisions. While prior work has involved observation of participants by their friends, the current study examined whether observation by an anonymous peer could elicit similarly increased reward sensitivity. Late adolescent participants completed a delay discounting task either alone or under the belief that performance was being observed from a neighboring room by an unknown viewer of the same gender and age. Participants who believed that a peer observer was watching accepted significantly smaller immediate monetary rewards than those playing alone.

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      Adolescent mice, unlike adults, consume more alcohol in the presence of peers than alone (pages 79–85)

      Sheree Logue, Jason Chein, Thomas Gould, Erica Holliday and Laurence Steinberg

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12101

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      One hallmark of adolescent risk-taking is that it typically occurs when adolescents are with peers. It has been hypothesized that the presence of peers primes a reward-sensitive motivational state that overwhelms adolescents' immature capacity for inhibitory control. We examined this hypothesis using a rodent model.

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      Resting gamma power is linked to reading ability in adolescents (pages 86–93)

      Adam Tierney, Dana L. Strait and Nina Kraus

      Article first published online: 5 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12094

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      Infants who have more power within the gamma frequency range at rest develop better language and cognitive abilities over their first 3 years of life (Benasich et al., 2008). This positive trend may reflect the gradual increase in resting gamma power that peaks at about 4 years (Takano & Ogawa, 1998). We show that resting gamma power relates inversely to reading ability, suggesting that resting gamma power acts as an index of maturational progress in adolescents.

  4. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. RETRACTION
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      Influences of vowel and tone variation on emergent word knowledge: a cross-linguistic investigation (pages 94–109)

      Leher Singh, Tam Jun Hui, Calista Chan and Roberta Michnick Golinkoff

      Article first published online: 30 SEP 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12097

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      To learn words, infants must be sensitive to native phonological contrast. While lexical tone predominates as a source of phonemic contrast in human languages, there has been little investigation of the influences of lexical tone on word learning. The present study investigates sensitivity to tone mispronunciations in two groups of infants. For one group (Chinese learners), tone is phonemic in their native language, and for the second group (English learners), tone is non-phonemic and constituted suprasegmental variation.

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      Audio-visual speech perception: a developmental ERP investigation (pages 110–124)

      Victoria C.P. Knowland, Evelyne Mercure, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Fred Dick and Michael S.C. Thomas

      Article first published online: 31 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12098

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      In adults visual speech cues both confer a behavioural advantage during speech in noise tasks and modulate electrophysiological responses to auditory speech. Behavioural data currently suggest that before the age of eight to nine children fail to make use of visual cues during speech perception. This study shows that the electrophysiological markers of audio-visual integration during speech perception largely emerge over mid-childhood, in-line with the behavioural data. However, evidence also emerged for cue integration from at least as young as six, and for the maturation of integration responses beyond the age of twelve.

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      The deficit of letter processing in developmental dyslexia: combining evidence from dyslexics, typical readers and illiterate adults (pages 125–141)

      Tânia Fernandes, Ana P. Vale, Bruno Martins, José Morais and Régine Kolinsky

      Article first published online: 12 OCT 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12102

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      To clarify the link between anomalous letter processing and developmental dyslexia, we examined the impact of surrounding contours on letter vs. pseudo-letter processing by three groups of children – phonological dyslexics and two controls, one matched for chronological age, the other for reading level – and three groups of adults differing by schooling and literacy – unschooled illiterates and ex-illiterates, and schooled literates. For pseudo-letters, all groups showed congruence effects (CE: better performance for targets surrounded by a congruent than by an incongruent shape). For letters, only dyslexics showed CEs, which were explained by their phonological recoding abilities.

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      Enculturation to musical pitch structure in young children: evidence from behavioral and electrophysiological methods (pages 142–158)

      Kathleen A. Corrigall and Laurel J. Trainor

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12100

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      Two critical aspects of musical pitch structure in Western tonal music are key membership (understanding which notes belong in a key and which do not) and harmony (understanding which notes combine to form chords and which notes and chords tend to follow others). The early developmental trajectory of the acquisition of this knowledge remains unclear, in part because of the difficulty of testing young children. In two experiments, we investigated 4- and 5-year-olds' enculturation to Western musical pitch using a novel age-appropriate and engaging behavior task (Experiment 1) and electroencephalography (EEG; Experiment 2).

  5. RETRACTION

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. RETRACTION
    1. You have free access to this content
      Retraction (page 159)

      Article first published online: 17 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12161

      This article corrects:

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