Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 2

March 2014

Volume 17, Issue 2

Pages i–ii, 161–319

  1. ISSUE INFORMATION

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
    7. PAPERS
    8. SHORT REPORT
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      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 25 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12117

  2. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
    7. PAPERS
    8. SHORT REPORT
    1. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) (pages 161–174)

      Stephanie L. Bogart, Allyson J. Bennett, Steven J. Schapiro, Lisa A. Reamer and William D. Hopkins

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12106

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      Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11–43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46) with age-group peers.

    2. Cortical response variability as a developmental index of selective auditory attention (pages 175–186)

      Dana L. Strait, Jessica Slater, Victor Abecassis and Nina Kraus

      Article first published online: 22 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12107

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      Attention induces synchronicity in neuronal firing for the encoding of a given stimulus at the exclusion of others. Recently, we reported decreased variability in scalp-recorded cortical evoked potentials to attended compared with ignored speech in adults. Here we aimed to determine the developmental time course for this neural index of auditory attention.

    3. Neural connectivity patterns underlying symbolic number processing indicate mathematical achievement in children (pages 187–202)

      Joonkoo Park, Rosa Li and Elizabeth M. Brannon

      Article first published online: 23 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12114

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      How does the developing brain support the acquisition of symbolic number understanding? Using fMRI in young children, we found that symbolic number processing is subserved by the effective connectivity from the right parietal region to two other brain regions, the left supramarginal gyrus and the right precentral gyrus. Additionally, the degree of these effective connectivity patterns predicted age and math performance. These findings suggest that neural connectivity patterns underlying symbolic number processing may be critical as children acquire symbolic number understanding and that these patterns may serve as an important indicator of mathematical achievement.

  3. SHORT REPORT

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
    7. PAPERS
    8. SHORT REPORT
    1. Costs and benefits linked to developments in cognitive control (pages 203–211)

      Katharine A. Blackwell and Yuko Munakata

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12113

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      Developing cognitive control over one's thoughts, emotions, and actions is a fundamental process that predicts important life outcomes. Such control begins in infancy, and shifts during development from a predominantly reactive form (e.g. retrieving task-relevant information when needed) to an increasingly proactive form (e.g. maintaining task-relevant information in anticipation of needing it). While such developments are generally viewed as adaptive, cognitive abilities can also involve trade-offs, such that the benefits of developing increasingly proactive control may come with associated costs.

  4. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
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    6. SHORT REPORTS
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    8. SHORT REPORT
    1. Differential influence of safe versus threatening facial expressions on decision-making during an inhibitory control task in adolescence and adulthood (pages 212–223)

      J.E. Cohen-Gilbert, W.D.S. Killgore, C.N. White, Z.J. Schwab, D.J. Crowley, M.J. Covell, J.T. Sneider and M.M. Silveri

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12123

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      Social cognition matures dramatically during adolescence and into early adulthood, supported by continued improvements in inhibitory control. During this time, developmental changes in interpreting and responding to social signals such as facial expressions also occur. In the present study, subjects performed a Go No-Go task that required them to respond or inhibit responding based on threat or safety cues present in facial expressions.

    2. What's mom got to do with it? Contributions of maternal executive function and caregiving to the development of executive function across early childhood (pages 224–238)

      Kimberly Cuevas, Kirby Deater-Deckard, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Amanda J. Watson, Katherine C. Morasch and Martha Ann Bell

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12073

      Executive functions (EFs; e.g. working memory, inhibitory control) are mediated by the prefrontal cortex and associated with optimal cognitive and socio-emotional development. This study provides the first concurrent analysis of the relative contributions of maternal EF and caregiving to child EF. A group of children and their mothers (= 62) completed age-appropriate interaction (10, 24, 36 months) and EF tasks (child: 24, 36, and 48 months).

  5. SHORT REPORTS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
    7. PAPERS
    8. SHORT REPORT
    1. Sensitivity to social and non-social threats in temperamentally shy children at-risk for anxiety (pages 239–247)

      Vanessa LoBue and Koraly Pérez-Edgar

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12110

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      In the current brief report, we examined threat perception in a group of young children who may be at-risk for anxiety due to extreme temperamental shyness. Results demonstrate specific differences in the processing of social threats: 4- to 7-year-olds in the high-shy group demonstrated a greater bias for social threats (angry faces) than did a comparison group of low-shy children. This pattern did not hold for non-social threats like snakes: Both groups showed an equal bias for the detection of snakes over frogs.

    2. Pity or peanuts? Oxytocin induces different neural responses to the same infant crying labeled as sick or bored (pages 248–256)

      Madelon M.E. Riem, Alexandra Voorthuis, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg and Marinus H. van Ijzendoorn

      Article first published online: 6 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12103

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      The neuropeptide oxytocin plays an important role in mother-infant bonding. However, recent studies indicate that the effects of oxytocin on prosociality are dependent on perceived social context. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined differential effects of intranasally administered oxytocin on neural responding to 500 and 700 Hz crying that was indicated as emanating from a sick infant and 500 and 700 Hz crying emanating from a bored infant. Oxytocin significantly increased insula and inferior frontal gyrus responding to sick infant crying, but decreased activation in response to crying emanating from a bored infant. In addition, oxytocin decreased amygdala responding to 500Hz crying, but increased amygdala responding to 700Hz crying.

  6. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
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    8. SHORT REPORT
    1. The bonnie baby: experimentally manipulated temperament affects perceived cuteness and motivation to view infant faces (pages 257–269)

      Christine E. Parsons, Katherine S. Young, Ritu Bhandari, Marinus H. van Ijzendoorn, Marian J. Bakermans-Kranenburg, Alan Stein and Morten L. Kringelbach

      Article first published online: 14 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12112

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      Attractive individuals are perceived as having various positive personality qualities. Positive personality qualities can in turn increase perceived attractiveness. However, the developmental origins of the link between attractiveness and personality are not understood. This is important because infant attractiveness (‘cuteness’) elicits caregiving from adults, and infant personality (‘temperament’) shapes caregiving behaviour.

    2. Watch the hands: infants can learn to follow gaze by seeing adults manipulate objects (pages 270–281)

      Gedeon O. Deák, Anna M. Krasno, Jochen Triesch, Joshua Lewis and Leigh Sepeta

      Article first published online: 4 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12122

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      Infants gradually learn to share attention, but it is unknown how they acquire skills such as gaze-following. Deák and Triesch () suggest that gaze-following could be acquired if infants learn that adults' gaze direction is likely to be aligned with interesting sights. This hypothesis stipulates that adults tend to look at things that infants find interesting, and infants could learn by noticing that tendency.

    3. Enhanced development of auditory change detection in musically trained school-aged children: a longitudinal event-related potential study (pages 282–297)

      Vesa Putkinen, Mari Tervaniemi, Katri Saarikivi, Pauliina Ojala and Minna Huotilainen

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12109

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      We investigated longitudinally the development of auditory discrimination skills in musically trained and nontrained children. To this end, we recorded the mismatch negativity (MMN) and P3a responses from children who play a musical instrument and age-matched children with no musical training at ages 7, 9, 11, and 13. The musically trained children showed larger increase in MMN and P3a amplitudes with age for chord deviants than the control children. No group differences in response amplitudes were evident at the early stages of the training. Therefore, our results indicate that the superior neural auditory discrimination in the musically trained children was due to training and was not to pre-existing group differences.

    4. Why computational models are better than verbal theories: the case of nonword repetition (pages 298–310)

      Gary Jones, Fernand Gobet, Daniel Freudenthal, Sarah E. Watson and Julian M. Pine

      Article first published online: 15 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12111

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      Tests of nonword repetition (NWR) have often been used to examine children's phonological knowledge and word learning abilities. However, theories of NWR primarily explain performance either in terms of phonological working memory or long-term knowledge, with little consideration of how these processes interact. One theoretical account that focuses specifically on the interaction between short-term and long-term memory is the chunking hypothesis. Testing the chunking hypothesis across three sets of nonwords that varied in wordlikeness showed that its predictions were only partly borne out. Only when implementing the chunking hypothesis as a computational model were all predictions supported. The research shows how any theory that involves long-term knowledge must be able to properly estimate not only the long-term knowledge involved but also how that knowledge interacts with temporary memory.

  7. SHORT REPORT

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORT
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
    7. PAPERS
    8. SHORT REPORT
    1. Religion insulates ingroup evaluations: the development of intergroup attitudes in India (pages 311–319)

      Yarrow Dunham, Mahesh Srinivasan, Ron Dotsch and David Barner

      Article first published online: 11 NOV 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12105

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      We investigated two of India's primary means of social distinction, caste and religion, and explore the development of implicit and explicit attitudes towards these groups in minority-status Muslim children and majority-status Hindu children. Results from two tests of implicit attitudes find that caste attitudes parallel previous findings for race: higher-caste children as well as lower-caste children have robust high-caste preferences. However, results for religion were quite different, with lower-status Muslim children and higher-status Hindu children both showing strong implicit ingroup preference. We suggest that religion may play a protective role in insulating children from the internalization of stigma.

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