Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 4

July 2014

Volume 17, Issue 4

Pages i–ii, 481–645

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
    5. Erratum
    6. Editorial
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12119

  2. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
    5. Erratum
    6. Editorial
    1. Infants track word forms in early word–object associations (pages 481–491)

      Tania S. Zamuner, Laurel Fais and Janet F. Werker

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12149

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      A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, ; Smith, ). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar word form will lead young word learners to look for an object to associate with it (Jusczyk, ).

    2. Acuity of the approximate number system and preschoolers’ quantitative development (pages 492–505)

      Kristy van Marle, Felicia W. Chu, Yaoran Li and David C. Geary

      Article first published online: 5 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12143

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      The study assessed the relations among acuity of the inherent approximate number system (ANS), performance on measures of symbolic quantitative knowledge, and mathematics achievement for a sample of 138 (64 boys) preschoolers. The Weber fraction (a measure of ANS acuity) and associated task accuracy were significantly correlated with mathematics achievement following one year of preschool, and predicted performance on measures of children's explicit knowledge of Arabic numerals, number words, and cardinal value, controlling for age, sex, parental education, intelligence, executive control, and preliteracy knowledge. The relation between ANS acuity and mathematics achievement was fully mediated by the symbolic quantitative tasks.

    3. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Cognitive components of a mathematical processing network in 9-year-old children (pages 506–524)

      Dénes Szűcs, Amy Devine, Fruzsina Soltesz, Alison Nobes and Florence Gabriel

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12144

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      We determined how various cognitive abilities, including several measures of a proposed domain-specific number sense, relate to mathematical competence in nearly 100 9-year-old children with normal reading skill. Results are consistent with an extended number processing network and suggest that important processing nodes of this network are phonological processing, verbal knowledge, visuo-spatial short-term and working memory, spatial ability and general executive functioning. The model was highly specific to predicting arithmetic performance.

    4. Children's cognitive representation of the mathematical number line (pages 525–536)

      Jeffrey N. Rouder and David C. Geary

      Article first published online: 4 MAY 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12166

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      Learning of the mathematical number line has been hypothesized to be dependent on an inherent sense of approximate quantity. Children's number line placements are predicted to conform to the underlying properties of this system; specifically, placements are exaggerated for small numerals and compressed for larger ones. Alternative hypotheses are based on proportional reasoning; specifically, numerals are placed relative to set anchors such as end points on the line. Applying novel statistical models that capture mean performance and variance to the number line placements of 224 children from first to fifth grade, inclusive, provided strong evidence for proportional reasoning; specifically, the two cycle and scallop models.

    5. Developmental dissociation in the neural responses to simple multiplication and subtraction problems (pages 537–552)

      Jérôme Prado, Rachna Mutreja and James R. Booth

      Article first published online: 21 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12140

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      Mastering single-digit arithmetic during school years is commonly thought to depend upon an increasing reliance on verbally memorized facts. An alternative model, however, posits that fluency in single-digit arithmetic might also be achieved via the increasing use of efficient calculation procedures. To test between these hypotheses, we used a cross-sectional design to measure the neural activity associated with single-digit subtraction and multiplication in 34 children from 2nd to 7th grade.

    6. Children's learning of number words in an indigenous farming-foraging group (pages 553–563)

      Steven T. Piantadosi, Julian Jara-Ettinger and Edward Gibson

      Article first published online: 27 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12078

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      We show that children in the Tsimane', a farming-foraging group in the Bolivian rain-forest, learn number words along a similar developmental trajectory to children from industrialized countries. Tsimane' children successively acquire the first three or four number words before fully learning how counting works. However, their learning is substantially delayed relative to children from the United States, Russia, and Japan.

    7. Effects of classroom bilingualism on task-shifting, verbal memory, and word learning in children (pages 564–583)

      Margarita Kaushanskaya, Megan Gross and Milijana Buac

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12142

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      We examined the effects of classroom bilingual experience in children on an array of cognitive skills. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared with children who spoke English as the native language and who had been exposed to Spanish in the context of dual-immersion schooling for an average of 2 years. The groups were compared on a measure of non-linguistic task-shifting; measures of verbal short-term and working memory; and measures of word learning.

    8. Moderator effects of working memory on the stability of ADHD symptoms by dopamine receptor gene polymorphisms during development (pages 584–595)

      Joey W. Trampush, Michelle M. Jacobs, Yasmin L. Hurd, Jeffrey H. Newcorn and Jeffrey M. Halperin

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12131

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      We tested the hypothesis that dopamine D1 and D2 receptor gene (DRD1 and DRD2, respectively) polymorphisms and the development of working memory skills can interact to influence symptom change over 10 years in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Specifically, we examined whether improvements in working memory maintenance and manipulation from childhood to early adulthood predicted the reduction of ADHD symptoms as a function of allelic variation in DRD1 and DRD2. Participants were 76 7–11-year-old children with ADHD who were genotyped and prospectively followed for almost 10 years. After correction for multiple testing, improvements in working memory manipulation, not maintenance, predicted reduction of symptomatology over development and was moderated by major allele homozygosity in two DRD1 polymorphisms (rs4532 and rs265978) previously linked with variation in D1 receptor expression.

    9. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Face engagement during infancy predicts later face recognition ability in younger siblings of children with autism (pages 596–611)

      Carina C.J.M. de Klerk, Teodora Gliga, Tony Charman and Mark H. Johnson, The BASIS team

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12141

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      Face recognition difficulties are frequently documented in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It has been hypothesized that these difficulties result from a reduced interest in faces early in life, leading to decreased cortical specialization and atypical development of the neural circuitry for face processing. Our findings contradict this prevailing idea and instead suggest that infants at risk for ASD do not lack an attraction to, or actively avoid faces, but rather seem to experience difficulties with processing faces from early in life resulting in problems in face recognition memory that are evident in toddlerhood.

  3. SHORT REPORTS

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
    5. Erratum
    6. Editorial
    1. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Additive effects of social and non-social attention during infancy relate to later autism spectrum disorder (pages 612–620)

      Rachael Bedford, Andrew Pickles, Teodora Gliga, Mayada Elsabbagh, Tony Charman, Mark H. Johnson and the BASIS Team

      Article first published online: 23 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12139

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      Emerging findings from studies with infants at familial high risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), owing to an older sibling with a diagnosis, suggest that those who go on to develop ASD show early impairments in the processing of stimuli with both social and non-social content. Although ASD is defined by social-communication impairments and restricted and repetitive behaviours, the majority of cognitive theories of ASD posit a single underlying factor, which over development has secondary effects across domains. This is the first high-risk study to statistically differentiate theoretical models of the development of ASD in high-risk siblings using multiple risk factors.

    2. Detecting ‘infant-directedness' in face and voice (pages 621–627)

      Hojin I. Kim and Scott P. Johnson

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12146

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      Five- and 3-month-old infants' perception of infant-directed (ID) faces and the role of speech in perceiving faces were examined. Infants' eye movements were recorded as they viewed a series of two side-by-side talking faces, one infant-directed and one adult-directed (AD), while listening to ID speech, AD speech, or in silence. Infants showed consistently greater dwell time on ID faces vs. AD faces, and this ID face preference was consistent across all three sound conditions.

    3. Neural correlates of infant accent discrimination: an fNIRS study (pages 628–635)

      Alejandrina Cristia, Yasuyo Minagawa-Kawai, Natalia Egorova, Judit Gervain, Luca Filippin, Dominique Cabrol and Emmanuel Dupoux

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12160

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      The present study investigated the neural correlates of infant discrimination of very similar linguistic varieties (Quebecois and Parisian French) using functional Near InfraRed Spectroscopy. In line with previous behavioral and electrophysiological data, there was no evidence that 3-month-olds discriminated the two regional accents, whereas 5-month-olds did, with the locus of discrimination in left anterior perisylvian regions.

    4. Spatial metaphor in language can promote the development of cross-modal mappings in children (pages 636–643)

      Shakila Shayan, Ozge Ozturk, Melissa Bowerman and Asifa Majid

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12157

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      Pitch is often described metaphorically: for example, Farsi and Turkish speakers use a ‘thickness’ metaphor (low sounds are ‘thick’ and high sounds are ‘thin’), while German and English speakers use a height metaphor (‘low’, ‘high’). This study examines how child and adult speakers of Farsi, Turkish, and German map pitch and thickness using a cross-modal association task. All groups, except for German children, performed significantly better than chance. This suggests language can boost cross-modal associations.

  4. Erratum

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
    5. Erratum
    6. Editorial
    1. You have free access to this content
      Erratum (page 644)

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12213

      This article corrects:

      Language is not necessary for color categories

      Vol. 16, Issue 1, 111–115, Article first published online: 21 DEC 2012

  5. Editorial

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
    5. Erratum
    6. Editorial
    1. Editorial (page 645)

      Brad Schlaggar, Michelle de Haan, Charles A Nelson and Paul C Quinn

      Article first published online: 22 JUN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12214

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