Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 17 Issue 5

September 2014

Volume 17, Issue 5

Pages i–ii, 647–807

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. TARGET ARTICLE WITH COMMENTARY AND RESPONSE
    4. RESPONSE
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12120

  2. TARGET ARTICLE WITH COMMENTARY AND RESPONSE

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. TARGET ARTICLE WITH COMMENTARY AND RESPONSE
    4. RESPONSE
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
    1. False belief in infancy: a fresh look (pages 647–659)

      Cecilia Heyes

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12148

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Can infants appreciate that others have false beliefs? Do they have a theory of mind? In this article I provide a detailed review of more than 20 experiments that have addressed these questions, and offered an affirmative answer, using nonverbal ‘violation of expectation’ and ‘anticipatory looking’ procedures. Although many of these experiments are both elegant and ingenious, I argue that their results can be explained by the operation of domain-general processes and in terms of ‘low-level novelty’.

    2. How fresh a look? A reply to Heyes (pages 660–664)

      Rose M. Scott and Renée Baillargeon

      Article first published online: 25 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12173

  3. RESPONSE

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. TARGET ARTICLE WITH COMMENTARY AND RESPONSE
    4. RESPONSE
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
  4. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. TARGET ARTICLE WITH COMMENTARY AND RESPONSE
    4. RESPONSE
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
    1. Cognitive control moderates early childhood temperament in predicting social behavior in 7-year-old children: an ERP study (pages 667–681)

      Connie Lamm, Olga L. Walker, Kathryn A. Degnan, Heather A. Henderson, Daniel S. Pine, Jennifer Martin McDermott and Nathan A. Fox

      Article first published online: 22 APR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12158

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Behavioral inhibition (BI) is a temperament associated with heightened vigilance and fear of novelty in early childhood, and social reticence and increased risk for anxiety problems later in development. However, not all behaviorally inhibited children develop signs of anxiety. One mechanism that might contribute to the variability in developmental trajectories is the recruitment of cognitive-control resources.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees (pages 682–696)

      Kim A. Bard, Roger Bakeman, Sarah T. Boysen and David A. Leavens

      Article first published online: 11 JAN 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12145

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, e.g., joint attention and cooperation. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences, and their social cognition was compared with human norms. This figure shows significant differences between the two chimpanzee groups in joint attention success and important differences between the human norms and chimpanzee groups. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition highlight cognition, but we found that past engagement experiences and concurrent emotion were major predictors of both joint attention and cooperation.

    3. Parameter-based assessment of disturbed and intact components of visual attention in children with developmental dyslexia (pages 697–713)

      Johanna Bogon, Kathrin Finke, Gerd Schulte-Körne, Hermann J. Müller, Werner X. Schneider and Prisca Stenneken

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12150

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      People with developmental dyslexia (DD) have been shown to be impaired in tasks that require the processing of multiple visual elements in parallel. It has been suggested that this deficit originates from disturbed visual attentional functions. Using a parametric assessment based on a mathematically specified theory of visual attention, we compared visual attentional components in children with DD to those of typically developing children. Children with DD showed impairments in general attentional resources. In contrast, there was no evidence for impaired selectivity components. The findings are compared to results from a methodological highly comparable adult group study on dyslexia. We conclude that slowed perceptual processing speed is a primary visual attentional deficit in dyslexia. Furthermore, reduced VSTM storage capacity seems to modulate the difficulties in written language processing imposed by the disorder.

    4. Numerical predictors of arithmetic success in grades 1–6 (pages 714–726)

      Ian M. Lyons, Gavin R. Price, Anniek Vaessen, Leo Blomert and Daniel Ansari

      Article first published online: 28 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12152

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Math relies on mastery and integration of a wide range of simpler numerical processes and concepts. Recent work has identified several numerical competencies that predict variation in math ability. We examined the unique relations between eight basic numerical skills and early arithmetic ability in a large sample (N = 1391) of children across grades 1–6. In grades 1–2, children's ability to judge the relative magnitude of numerical symbols was most predictive of early arithmetic. The unique contribution of children's ability to assess ordinality in numerical symbols steadily increased across grades, overtaking all other predictors by grade 6.

    5. The roles of family history of dyslexia, language, speech production and phonological processing in predicting literacy progress (pages 727–742)

      Julia M. Carroll, Ian R. Mundy and Anna J. Cunningham

      Article first published online: 1 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12153

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      It is well established that speech, language and phonological skills are closely associated with literacy, and that children with a family risk of dyslexia (FRD) tend to show deficits in each of these areas in the preschool years. This paper examines what the relationships are between FRD and these skills, and whether deficits in speech, language and phonological processing fully account for the increased risk of dyslexia in children with FRD. One hundred and fifty-three 4–6-year-old children, 44 of whom had FRD, completed a battery of speech, language, phonology and literacy tasks.

    6. Two rooms, two representations? Episodic-like memory in toddlers and preschoolers (pages 743–756)

      Nora S. Newcombe, Frances Balcomb, Katrina Ferrara, Melissa Hansen and Jessica Koski

      Article first published online: 13 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12162

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Episodic memory involves binding together what-where-when associations. In three experiments, we tested the development of memory for such contextual associations in a naturalistic setting. Children searched for toys in two rooms with two different experimenters; each room contained two identical sets of four containers, but arranged differently. A distinct toy was hidden in a distinct container in each room.

  5. SHORT REPORTS

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. TARGET ARTICLE WITH COMMENTARY AND RESPONSE
    4. RESPONSE
    5. PAPERS
    6. SHORT REPORTS
    1. Highchair philosophers: the impact of seating context-dependent exploration on children's naming biases (pages 757–765)

      Lynn K. Perry, Larissa K. Samuelson and Johanna B. Burdinie

      Article first published online: 1 DEC 2013 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12147

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      We examine developmental interactions between context, exploration, and word learning. Infants show an understanding of how nonsolid substances are categorized that does not reliably transfer to learning how these categories are named in laboratory tasks. We argue that what infants learn about naming nonsolid substances is contextually bound - most nonsolids that toddlers are familiar with are foods and thus, typically experienced when sitting in a highchair.

    2. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Neural specialization for speech in the first months of life (pages 766–774)

      Sarah Shultz, Athena Vouloumanos, Randi H. Bennett and Kevin Pelphrey

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12151

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      How does the brain's response to speech change over the first months of life? Although behavioral findings indicate that neonates' listening biases are sharpened over the first months of life, with a species-specific preference for speech emerging by 3 months, the neural substrates underlying this developmental change are unknown. We examined neural responses to speech compared with biological non-speech sounds in 1- to 4-month-old infants using fMRI. Infants heard speech and biological non-speech sounds, including heterospecific vocalizations and human non-speech.

    3. Early predictors of middle school fraction knowledge (pages 775–785)

      Drew H. Bailey, Robert S. Siegler and David C. Geary

      Article first published online: 27 FEB 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12155

      Recent findings that earlier fraction knowledge predicts later mathematics achievement raise the question of what predicts later fraction knowledge. Analyses of longitudinal data indicated that whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction magnitudes in middle school, controlling for whole number arithmetic proficiency, domain general cognitive abilities, parental income and education, race, and gender. Similarly, knowledge of whole number arithmetic in first grade predicted knowledge of fraction arithmetic in middle school, controlling for whole number magnitude knowledge in first grade and the other control variables.

    4. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Neural bases of Theory of Mind in children with autism spectrum disorders and children with conduct problems and callous-unemotional traits (pages 786–796)

      Elizabeth O'Nions, Catherine L. Sebastian, Eamon McCrory, Kaylita Chantiluke, Francesca Happé and Essi Viding

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12167

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      The present study aimed to examine the neural underpinnings of Theory of Mind (ToM) in children (aged 10–16) with autism spectrum disorders (ASD; N &equals 16), conduct problems with high callous-unemotional traits (CP/HCU; N &equals 16) and typically developing (TD) controls (N &equals 16) using a non-verbal cartoon vignette task. The analyses indicated that neural responses did not differ between TD and CP/HCU groups during ToM. TD and CP/HCU children exhibited significantly greater medial prefrontal cortex responses during ToM than did the ASD group (see Figure). This supports behavioural evidence suggesting typical ToM in children with CP/HCU, as well as imaging studies showing reduced mPFC response during ToM in ASD.

    5. Previous reward decreases errors of commission on later ‘No-Go’ trials in children 4 to 12 years of age: evidence for a context monitoring account (pages 797–807)

      Warren Winter and Margaret Sheridan

      Article first published online: 17 MAR 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12168

      Thumbnail image of graphical abstract

      Inhibitory control is widely hypothesized to be the cornerstone of executive function in childhood and the central deficit in a number of developmental disorders, including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, recent evidence from adults indicates that performance on response inhibition tasks may primarily reflect non-inhibitory attentional control (context monitoring) processes. Yet it may be that inhibition plays a more central role in childhood – a time when the architecture of cognitive processes might be more transparent due to wide variability in skill level.

SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION