Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 3

May 2015

Volume 18, Issue 3

Pages i–ii, 351–509

  1. ISSUE INFORMATION

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
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      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 16 APR 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12254

  2. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
    1. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia (pages 351–372)

      Miriam Rosenberg-Lee, Sarit Ashkenazi, Tianwen Chen, Christina B. Young, David C. Geary and Vinod Menon

      Article first published online: 6 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12216

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      We examined brain responses and connectivity during addition and subtraction problem solving in typically developing children and children with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Contrary to expectations of reduced activity in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) for children with DD, we found hyper-activity specifically for subtraction problems. Effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both tasks. These findings suggest the IPS and its circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during arithmetic problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement, are the neural mechanisms underlying dyscalculia.

    2. Individual differences in the shape bias in preschool children with specific language impairment and typical language development: theoretical and clinical implications (pages 373–388)

      Beverly Anne Collisson, Bernard Grela, Tammie Spaulding, Jay G. Rueckl and James S. Magnuson

      Article first published online: 27 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12219

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      In a classic shape-bias paradigm, three and four-year-old children with typical language (TL) or Specific Language Impairment (SLI) saw an example object and then chose another from a set of three in Similarity Classification (‘See this? Which one goes with this one?’) and Novel Name Extension (‘See this? This is a [dax]', Find another [dax]') conditions. Children with TL replicated the classic pattern (random choices in Similarity Classification, large bias for shape in Name Extension), but those with SLI showed no apparent difference. This suggests that children with SLI fail to detect coherent covariation between linguistic and nonlinguistic properties that accelerates object name learning among their peers with TL. In a paired visual association task, children with TL showed significant learning over 4 days, but children with SLI did not. Performance in this task predicted individuals' shape bias better than any assessment, suggesting impairments of nonlinguistic learning abilities contributes to linguistic difficulties in SLI.

    3. Error-monitoring in response to social stimuli in individuals with higher-functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (pages 389–403)

      Camilla M. McMahon and Heather A. Henderson

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12220

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      When identifying the gender of a face, participants with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) had a smaller ERNdiff (difference in Error-Related Negativity amplitude between correct and incorrect responses) than participants with typical development. However, when identifying the affect of a face, participants with and without ASD did not differ on ERNdiff.

    4. Preschoolers with Down syndrome do not yet show the learning and memory impairments seen in adults with Down syndrome (pages 404–419)

      Lynette V. Roberts and Jenny L. Richmond

      Article first published online: 5 OCT 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12225

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      Adults with Down syndrome (DS) exhibit specific deficits in learning and memory processes that depend on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, however it is largely unclear how these processes develop in young children with DS. We tested preschoolers with DS on these areas, and as shown in the figure, they performed equivalently to mental-age matched controls. This finding suggests that the additional disability-specific learning and memory deficits seen in adulthood, are not yet evident in pre-schoolers with DS and likely emerge progressively with age.

    5. The impact of culture on physiological processes of emotion regulation: a comparison of US and Chinese preschoolers (pages 420–435)

      Adam S. Grabell, Sheryl L. Olson, Alison L. Miller, Daniel A. Kessler, Barbara Felt, Niko Kaciroti, Li Wang and Twila Tardif

      Article first published online: 31 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12227

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      We compared associations between specific effortful control subcomponents and stress-induced cortisol trajectories in preschool children residing in the U.S. and China. U.S. preschoolers showed an expected negative association between maternal-rated inhibitory control with cortisol reactivity and recovery. In contrast, Chinese preschoolers showed a positive association between maternal-rated attentional focusing and cortisol reactivity.

    6. Longitudinal study of perception of structured optic flow and random visual motion in infants using high-density EEG (pages 436–451)

      Seth B. Agyei, Magnus Holth, F.R. (Ruud) van der Weel and Audrey L.H. van der Meer

      Article first published online: 21 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12221

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      Infants greatly rely on the visual information that specifies self-motion as they increasingly become mobile during the first year of life. By using high-density EEG, the paper provides evidence for the perceptual development and processing of such visual motion information, where crawling infants' visual motion perception is clearly aided by the structured information from optic flow as opposed to random motion.

    7. Implications of ongoing neural development for the measurement of the error-related negativity in childhood (pages 452–468)

      David DuPuis, Nilam Ram, Cynthia J. Willner, Sarah Karalunas, Sidney J. Segalowitz and Lisa M. Gatzke-Kopp

      Article first published online: 11 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12229

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      This study examined error-related negativity (ERN) in a sample of 234 children assessed at 3 timepoints: kindergarten, 1st, and 2nd grades. At each timepoint, ERN was examined as the average amplitude across trials, as well as decomposed into components reflecting signal strength (theta power) and the temporal consistency (signal phase coherence) across trials, both of which contributed independently to the average amplitude measure. Across the 3 timepoints, increases in trial-to-trial temporal consistency resulted in increases in average ERN amplitude despite a significant decline in average signal strength across the same developmental period.

    8. The development of race-based perceptual categorization: skin color dominates early category judgments (pages 469–483)

      Yarrow Dunham, Elena V. Stepanova, Ron Dotsch and Alexander Todorov

      Article first published online: 25 AUG 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12228

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      What perceptual features do children use to categorize by race? Past research has suggested that adult-like abilities to racially classify emerge quite early in development. Our findings suggest this is not the case; younger children rely almost entirely on skin color, with little or no attention to other aspects of facial physiognomy.

    9. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5–5 years post-adoption (pages 484–494)

      Jenalee R. Doom, Michael K. Georgieff and Megan R. Gunnar

      Article first published online: 28 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12223

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      Iron deficiency at adoption and longer duration of institutional care increase ADHD symptoms 2.5-5 years post-adoption. Iron deficiency at adoption, but not duration of institutional care, predicts IQ.

  3. SHORT REPORTS

    1. Top of page
    2. ISSUE INFORMATION
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
    1. Children use salience to solve coordination problems (pages 495–501)

      Sebastian Grueneisen, Emily Wyman and Michael Tomasello

      Article first published online: 25 JUL 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12224

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      Dyads were presented with a task where two balls had to be inserted into the same of four boxes. When children got a ball each and had to coordinate their choices without communication (experimental condition) they were more likely to choose the most salient box than when they could choose independently (control condition).

    2. Whose idea is it anyway? The importance of reputation in acknowledgement (pages 502–509)

      Alex Shaw and Kristina Olson

      Article first published online: 16 SEP 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12234

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      We find that children dislike plagiarism because it harms an other's reputation. They think it is wrong for one to falsely take credit for others' good ideas, but not bad to help other people's reputation by falsely giving them credit for one's own good idea.

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