Developmental Science

Cover image for Vol. 18 Issue 5

September 2015

Volume 18, Issue 5

Pages i–ii, 671–862

  1. Issue Information

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
    1. You have free access to this content
      Issue Information (pages i–ii)

      Article first published online: 29 JUL 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12256

  2. PAPERS

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
    1. Towards a better understanding of the relationship between executive control and theory of mind: an intra-cultural comparison of three diverse samples (pages 671–685)

      Ameneh Shahaeian, Julie D. Henry, Maryam Razmjoee, Ali Teymoori and Cen Wang

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12243

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      Theory of Mind understanding (ToM) and Executive Functioning skills (EF) are compared among three diverse groups of Iranian children, including unschooled children from mountain village. While all children showed similar levels of ToM understanding, EF skills were highly related to children′s socio-economic status. The results provide support to the ‘Emergence account’ explaining the association between ToM and EF.

    2. Socioeconomic status and executive function: developmental trajectories and mediation (pages 686–702)

      Daniel A. Hackman, Robert Gallop, Gary W. Evans and Martha J. Farah

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12246

      We examined the developmental course of socioeconomic disparities in executive function and the features of childhood experience responsible for this association in the NICHD Study of Early Childcare. Lower family socioeconomic status (SES) predicts worse performance on tasks of executive function at the youngest age measured for each task, which was partially explained by characteristics of the home and family environment. SES does not predict the rate of growth of executive function across early and middle childhood, and thus early SES differences in executive function persist without accumulating or diminishing.

    3. Children do not recalibrate motor-sensory temporal order after exposure to delayed sensory feedback (pages 703–712)

      Tiziana Vercillo, David Burr, Giulio Sandini and Monica Gori

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12247

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      Motor-sensory recalibration is an important mechanism for the process of causal attribution. In this study we showed that this mechanism develops late in humans owing to the poor temporal resolution in motor-sensory synchronization in children younger than 12 years of age.

    4. The effects of early foster care intervention on attention biases in previously institutionalized children in Romania (pages 713–722)

      Sonya Troller-Renfree, Jennifer Martin McDermott, Charles A. Nelson, Charles H. Zeanah and Nathan A. Fox

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12261

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      The current study examined visual attention biases using a dot-probe paradigm in 8-year-old children who were part of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP). Children in the foster care intervention had a significantly larger positive bias when compared to the care-as-usual group. The magnitude of positive bias was predicted by age of placement into foster care and was associated with reduced psychiatric and social risk for children who experienced early psychosocial deprivation.

    5. You have full text access to this OnlineOpen article
      Looking and touching: what extant approaches reveal about the structure of early word knowledge (pages 723–735)

      Kristi Hendrickson, Samantha Mitsven, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger and Margaret Friend

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12250

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      In this study we conducted moment-by-moment analyses of 16- 18-month-olds' looking and reaching behavior as measures of early knowledge in a two-alternative forced-choice word-picture matching task to determine the speed with which a word was processed (visual reaction time) as a function of the type of haptic response: Target, Distractor, or No Touch. Participants were significantly slower at processing a word during No Touches compared to Distractor and Target Touches. These results suggest that incorrect and absent haptic responses appear to index distinct knowledge states..

    6. Active vision in passive locomotion: real-world free viewing in infants and adults (pages 736–750)

      Kari S. Kretch and Karen E. Adolph

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12251

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      Visual exploration in infants and adults has been studied using two very different paradigms: free viewing of flat screen displays in desk-mounted eye-tracking studies and real-world visual guidance of action in head-mounted eye-tracking studies. To test whether classic findings from screen-based studies generalize to real-world visual exploration and to compare natural visual exploration in infants and adults, we tested observers in a new paradigm that combines critical aspects of both previous techniques: free viewing during real-world visual exploration. Mothers and their 9-month-old infants wore head-mounted eye trackers while mothers carried their infants in a forward-facing infant carrier through a series of indoor hallways. Results indicate that several aspects of visual exploration of a flat screen display do not generalize to visual exploration in the real world.

    7. Processing of audiovisually congruent and incongruent speech in school-age children with a history of specific language impairment: a behavioral and event-related potentials study (pages 751–770)

      Natalya Kaganovich, Jennifer Schumaker, Danielle Macias and Dana Gustafson

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12263

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      Compared to their typically developing peers and adults, children with a history of SLI (H-SLI) showed normal attenuation of the N1 component to audiovisual speech but reduced susceptibility to the McGurk illusion. We conclude that, when present, audiovisual integration difficulty in the H-SLI group stems from a later (non-sensory) stage of processing.

    8. Concurrent and lasting effects of emotion regulation on amygdala response in adolescence and young adulthood (pages 771–784)

      Jennifer A. Silvers, Jocelyn Shu, Alexa D. Hubbard, Jochen Weber and Kevin N. Ochsner

      Article first published online: 28 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12260

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      Adults experience less variable and intense emotions than adolescents, suggesting that age predicts an improved ability to regulate one-s emotions. The present study found that adults showed greater concurrent and sustained reductions in the amygdala response during cognitive regulation of emotion relative to adolescents. These results suggest that not only are adults more successful at cognitively regulating emotional responses in the moment, but that emotion regulation has a more lasting impact for them than for adolescents as well.

    9. The brain adapts to orthography with experience: evidence from English and Chinese (pages 785–798)

      Fan Cao, Christine Brennan and James R. Booth

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12245

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      Greater developmental increases in English than in Chinese in left superior temporal gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus, suggesting phonological processing and fine-grained word form recognition is essential in English reading. Greater developmental increase in right middle occipital gyrus in Chinese than in English, suggesting holistic visuo-orthographic processing is essential in Chinese reading.

    10. Parental socioeconomic status and the neural basis of arithmetic: differential relations to verbal and visuo-spatial representations (pages 799–814)

      Özlem Ece Demir, Jérôme Prado and James R. Booth

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12268

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      We examined the relation of parental socioeconomic status (SES) to the neural bases of subtraction in school-age children (9- to 12-year-olds). We independently localized brain regions subserving verbal versus visuo-spatial representations to determine whether the parental SES-related differences in children's reliance on these neural representations varies as a function of math skill. At higher SES levels, higher skill was associated with greater recruitment of the left temporal cortex, identified by the verbal localizer. At lower SES levels, higher skill was associated with greater recruitment of right parietal cortex, identified by the visuo-spatial localizer. This suggests that depending on parental SES, children engage different neural systems to solve subtraction problems.

  3. SHORT REPORTS

    1. Top of page
    2. Issue Information
    3. PAPERS
    4. SHORT REPORTS
    1. Think fast! The relationship between goal prediction speed and social competence in infants (pages 815–823)

      Sheila Krogh-Jespersen, Zoe Liberman and Amanda L. Woodward

      Article first published online: 9 FEB 2015 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12249

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      Social interactions occur quickly, requiring infants to recruit their knowledge of others' goals and intentions and initiate appropriate responses within a timeframe of mere seconds. The current study investigates the possibility that developments in social competence during the second year of life are related to increases in the speed with which infants can employ their understanding of others' intentions. Results indicate that the speed with which infants can recruit and deploy their knowledge about others' intentions is a critical predictor of their success during a social interaction.

    2. Understanding the effects of one's actions upon hidden objects and the development of search behaviour in 7-month-old infants (pages 824–831)

      Richard J. O'Connor and James Russell

      Article first published online: 7 DEC 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12265

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      7-month-old infants learnt to spin a turntable to bring back into reach a toy that was either behind an opaque screen and thus hidden, or was behind a transparent screen and thus visible but out-of-reach. Before and after this training, infants performed an object permanence search task where a toy was hidden in a hiding-well. Infants who learnt to spin the turntable with the opaque screen showed the greatest improvement on the search task. We argue this was a result of them learning how their own actions can affect the visibility of hidden objects.

    3. The late positive potential predicts emotion regulation strategy use in school-aged children concurrently and two years later (pages 832–841)

      Sarah Babkirk, Victor Rios and Tracy A. Dennis

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12258

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      This longitudinal study examined the predictive value of the late positive potential (LPP), an ERP that has been shown to be sensitive to reappraisal, as an indicator of observed emotion regulation strategy use in children. Five- to seven- year old children completed a computerized cognitive reappraisal task while EEG was continuously recorded, as well as two emotionally challenging behavioral tasks, during which emotion regulation strategy use was observed. Two years later, the children again completed the same challenging behavioral tasks. Children who showed reappraisal-induced reductions in the LPP during the first assessment also used significantly more adaptive emotion regulation strategies, both concurrently and two years later.

    4. The lasting effects of process-specific versus stimulus-specific learning during infancy (pages 842–852)

      Hillary Hadley, Charisse B. Pickron and Lisa S. Scott

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12259

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      This study aimed to determine whether conceptual learning between 6 and 9 months leads to sustained behavioral advantages and neural changes in childhood. Here, children who received individual-level training with monkey faces (all monkey faces were individually named) from 6-9 months of age, showed an adult-like Event-related potential (ERP) inversion effect for human faces relative to children with no training, or who were trained with strollers or were trained at the category level with monkey faces.

    5. Spatial estimation: a non-Bayesian alternative (pages 853–862)

      Hilary Barth, Ellen Lesser, Jessica Taggart and Emily Slusser

      Article first published online: 29 NOV 2014 | DOI: 10.1111/desc.12264

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      Estimation bias is ubiquitous in perception and cognition. Many biases, such as those observed when children and adults mark remembered spatial locations, have been explained in terms of complex Bayesian models. Here we show that these biases are more simply explained by a psychophysical model of proportion estimation.

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